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Airborne endotoxin is associated with respiratory illness in the first 2 years of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169949
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Apr;114(4):610-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Robert Dales
David Miller
Ken Ruest
Mireille Guay
Stan Judek
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Division, Health Canada, Ottawa Hospital (General Campus), 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, Canada. rdales@ottawahospital.on.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Apr;114(4):610-4
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Child, Preschool
Endotoxins - toxicity
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Prince Edward Island
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced
Abstract
To determine the influence of endotoxin on the incidence of acute respiratory illness during the first 2 years of life, we carried out a longitudinal follow-up study, beginning at birth, of 332 children born in Prince Edward Island, Canada. We measured 5-day averaged air endotoxin in the homes of children, whose parents provided information by daily symptom diaries and twice-monthly telephone contact for up to 2 years. Endotoxin concentration was 0.49 +/- 3.49 EU/m3 (geometric mean +/- geometric SD), and number of annualized illness episodes was 6.83 +/- 2.80 (mean +/- SD). A doubling of the air endotoxin concentration was associated with an increase of 0.32 illness episodes per year (p = 0.0003), adjusted for age, year of study, breast-feeding, environmental tobacco smoke, child care attendance, indoor temperature, and income. Indoor mold surface area and fungal ergosterol were not significantly associated with endotoxin. Airborne endotoxin appears to be a risk factor for clinically symptomatic respiratory illnesses during the first 2 years of life independent of indoor fungus.
Notes
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Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):A30420601319
PubMed ID
16581554 View in PubMed
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Does socio-demographic status influence the effect of pollens and molds on hospitalization for asthma? Results from a time-series study in 10 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176087
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Mar;15(3):214-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
Sabit Cakmak
Robert E Dales
Stan Judek
Frances Coates
Author Affiliation
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Health Canada, Canada.
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Mar;15(3):214-8
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Allergens - toxicity
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Atmospheric Pressure
Basidiomycota - pathogenicity
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - toxicity
Educational Status
Female
Fungi - pathogenicity
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - toxicity
Ozone - toxicity
Pollen - toxicity
Residence Characteristics - classification
Risk factors
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Statistical Distributions
Time Factors
Weather
Abstract
Social status influences asthma morbidity but the mechanisms are not well understood. To determine if sociodemographics influence the susceptibility to ambient aeroallergens, we determined the association between daily hospitalizations for asthma and daily concentrations of ambient pollens and molds in 10 large Canadian cities.
Daily time-series analyses were performed and results were adjusted for day of the week, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Results were then stratified by age, gender, and neighborhood family education and income.
There appeared to be age and gender interactions in the relation between aeroallergens and asthma. An increase in basidiomycetes equivalent to its mean value, about 300/m3, increased asthma admissions for younger males (under 13 years of age) by 9.3% (95% CI, 4.8%, 13.8%) vs. 4.2% (95% CI, - 0.1%, 8.5%) for older males. The reverse was true among females with increased effect in the older age group: 2.3% (95% CI, 1.2%, 5.8%) in those under 13 years vs. 7.1% (95% CI, 4.1%, 10.1%) for older females. Associations were seen between aeroallergens and asthma hospitalization in the lowest but not the highest education group.
Our results suggest that younger males and those within less educated families may be more vulnerable to aeroallergens as reflected by hospitalization for asthma.
PubMed ID
15723767 View in PubMed
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Do gender, education, and income modify the effect of air pollution gases on cardiac disease?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171253
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jan;48(1):89-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Sabit Cakmak
Robert E Dales
Stan Judek
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Canada.
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jan;48(1):89-94
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Disease Susceptibility
Education
Female
Heart Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Income
Male
Residence Characteristics
Risk
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Social Class
Statistics, nonparametric
Weather
Abstract
We sought to determine whether gender, education, and income influence the susceptibility to ambient air pollution.
We determined the association between daily cardiac hospitalizations and daily concentrations of gaseous air pollutants in 10 large Canadian cities using time-series analyses adjusted for day-of-the week, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity.
Percentage increases in hospitalization associated with an increase in air pollution equivalent to its mean value were statistically significant for ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide individually (P
PubMed ID
16404215 View in PubMed
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Economic evaluation of the benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity associated with air pollution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186975
Source
Environ Health. 2002 Dec 18;1(1):7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-18-2002
Author
David M Stieb
Paul De Civita
F Reed Johnson
Matthew P Manary
Aslam H Anis
Robert C Beveridge
Stan Judek
Author Affiliation
Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. dave_stieb@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Environ Health. 2002 Dec 18;1(1):7
Date
Dec-18-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - economics - prevention & control
Attitude to Health
Canada
Cardiovascular Diseases - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Environmental Exposure - economics - prevention & control
Episode of Care
Hospitalization - economics
Humans
Models, Econometric
Monte Carlo Method
Respiratory Tract Diseases - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Few assessments of the costs and benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity related to air pollution have employed a comprehensive, explicit approach to capturing the full societal value of reduced morbidity.
We used empirical data on the duration and severity of episodes of cardiorespiratory disease as inputs to complementary models of cost of treatment, lost productivity, and willingness to pay to avoid acute cardiorespiratory morbidity outcomes linked to air pollution in epidemiological studies. A Monte Carlo estimation procedure was utilized to propagate uncertainty in key inputs and model parameters.
Valuation estimates ranged from 13 dollars (1997, Canadian) (95% confidence interval, 0-28 dollars) for avoidance of an acute respiratory symptom day to 5,200 dollars (4,000 dollars-6,400 dollars) for avoidance of a cardiac hospital admission. Cost of treatment accounted for the majority of the overall value of cardiac and respiratory hospital admissions as well as cardiac emergency department visits, while lost productivity generally represented a small proportion of overall value. Valuation estimates for days of restricted activity, asthma symptoms and acute respiratory symptoms were sensitive to alternative assumptions about level of activity restriction. As an example of the application of these values, we estimated that the observed decrease in particulate sulfate concentrations in Toronto between 1984 and 1999 resulted in annual benefits of 1.4 million dollars (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.8 million dollars) in relation to reduced emergency department visits and hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory disease.
Our approach to estimating the value of avoiding a range of acute morbidity effects of air pollution addresses a number of limitations of the current literature, and is applicable to future assessments of the benefits of improving air quality.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12537591 View in PubMed
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Effect of airborne allergens on emergency visits by children for conjunctivitis and rhinitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190822
Source
Lancet. 2002 Mar 16;359(9310):947-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-16-2002
Author
Sabit Cakmak
Robert E Dales
Richard T Burnett
Stan Judek
Frances Coates
Jeffrey R Brook
Source
Lancet. 2002 Mar 16;359(9310):947-8
Date
Mar-16-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Allergens - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Child
Conjunctivitis - epidemiology - etiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hospitals, Pediatric
Humans
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Pollen - adverse effects
Rhinitis - epidemiology - etiology
Spores, Fungal
Abstract
The effect of fungal spores and pollen grains on morbidity from childhood conjunctivitis and rhinitis is mostly unknown. We therefore studied the association between daily concentrations of these airborne allergens and daily emergency visits to a children hospital between 1993 and 1997. An increase of 551 basidiomycetes spores per m(3), or of 72 ragweed grains per m(3), was associated with an increase of about 10% in visits for conjunctivitis and rhinitis (p
PubMed ID
11918918 View in PubMed
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Influence of outdoor aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181612
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Feb;113(2):303-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2004
Author
Robert E Dales
Sabit Cakmak
Stan Judek
Tom Dann
Frances Coates
Jeffrey R Brook
Richard T Burnett
Author Affiliation
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Feb;113(2):303-6
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis
Allergens - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Hospitalization - trends
Humans
Poaceae - adverse effects
Pollen - adverse effects
Seasons
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
Trees - adverse effects
Abstract
The risk of hospitalization for asthma caused by outdoor aeroallergens is largely unknown.
The objective of this study was to determine the association between changes in outdoor aeroallergens and hospitalizations for asthma from the Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast of Canada.
A daily time series analysis was done to test the association between daily changes in aeroallergens and daily changes in hospitalizations for asthma during a 7-year period between 1993 and 2000 in 10 of the largest cities in Canada. Results were adjusted for long-term trends, day of the week, climate, and air pollution.
A daily increase, equivalent to the mean value of each allergen, was associated with the following percentage increase in asthma hospitalizations: 3.3% (95% CI, 2.3 to 4.1) for basidiomycetes, 3.1% (95% CI, 2.8 to 5.7) for ascomycetes, 3.2% (95% CI, 1.6 to 4.8) for deuteromycetes, 3.0% (95% CI, 1.1 to 4.9) for weeds, 2.9% (95% CI, 0.9 to 5.0) for trees, and 2.0% (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8) for grasses. After accounting for the independent effects of trees and ozone, the combination of the 2 was associated with an additional 0.22% increase in admissions averaged across cities (P
Notes
Comment In: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Feb;115(2):426-7; author reply 42715696111
PubMed ID
14767446 View in PubMed
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Meta-analysis of time-series studies of air pollution and mortality: effects of gases and particles and the influence of cause of death, age, and season.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190256
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2002 Apr;52(4):470-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2002
Author
David M Stieb
Stan Judek
Richard T Burnett
Author Affiliation
Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON. dave_stieb@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2002 Apr;52(4):470-84
Date
Apr-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Humans
Mortality - trends
Particle Size
Seasons
Abstract
A comprehensive, systematic synthesis was conducted of daily time-series studies of air pollution and mortality from around the world. Estimates of effect sizes were extracted from 109 studies, from single- and multipollutant models, and by cause of death, age, and season. Random effects pooled estimates of excess all-cause mortality (single-pollutant models) associated with a change in pollutant concentration equal to the mean value among a representative group of cities were 2.0% (95% CI 1.5-2.4%) per 31.3 microg/m3 particulate matter (PM) of median diameter
PubMed ID
12002192 View in PubMed
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Respiratory health effects of air pollution gases: modification by education and income.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163537
Source
Arch Environ Occup Health. 2006 Jan-Feb;61(1):5-10
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sabit Cakmak
Robert E Dales
Stan Judek
Author Affiliation
Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division Environmental Health Science Bureau of Health Canada, Ottawa.
Source
Arch Environ Occup Health. 2006 Jan-Feb;61(1):5-10
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Canada - epidemiology
Educational Status
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Female
Humans
Male
National Health Programs
Ozone - analysis
Respiratory Insufficiency - epidemiology - etiology
Social Class
Abstract
The authors' purpose was to determine whether community income and education modify the effect of gaseous air pollution on respiratory hospitalizations. The authors used daily time-series analyses to test the association between daily respiratory hospitalizations and daily concentrations of ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide in 10 large Canadian cities. They calculated the percentage increase in hospitalizations for an increase in each air pollutant that was equivalent in magnitude to its mean value. The effect of nitrogen dioxide was stronger with decreasing levels of household income (p = .023). For the combined pollutant effect, percentage increases in hospitalizations ranged from 7.0% (95% confidence interval = 2.5-11.5) to -0.7% (95% confidence interval = -4.7-3.3) from lowest to highest quartile of education (trend test p = .001). Living in communities in which the individuals have lower household education and income levels may increase the individuals' vulnerability to air pollution.
PubMed ID
17503615 View in PubMed
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Respiratory illness in children attending daycare.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179919
Source
Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004 Jul;38(1):64-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Robert E Dales
Sabit Cakmak
Kevin Brand
Stan Judek
Author Affiliation
Ottawa Health Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Health Canada, Ontario. rdales@ottawahospital.on.ca
Source
Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004 Jul;38(1):64-9
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Probability
Prospective Studies
Respiratory Tract Infections - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Daycare attendance has been associated with an increased occurrence of respiratory illness, but little is known about which children are at particular risk. Our objectives were to determine the association between the incidence of respiratory illness and attendance in daycare, and to determine if the risk is modified by selected sociodemographic factors. Using a prospective study design, 185 newborns in Prince Edward Island, Canada, were recruited between January 1997-March 2000. They were followed for 2 years or until the end-date of the study in September 2000. Information on daycare attendance and respiratory illness was collected twice monthly by telephone interviews of the parent. Comparing those who were ever in daycare more than 1 day per week (daycare group) to those who were not, the association between daycare and illness was stronger among children 15 months of age compared to those less than 3 months of age (P or = $30,000 (P = 0.003). However, in the daycare group, income did not influence illness, with respective values of 14.6% (CI, 12.4, 16.8) vs. 13.2% (CI, 12.1, 14.3) (P = 0.21). In conclusion, younger children and those with siblings may be less susceptible to illness associated with daycare, and daycare attendance may negate a protective effect of higher income on respiratory illness.
PubMed ID
15170875 View in PubMed
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The role of fungal spores in thunderstorm asthma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186327
Source
Chest. 2003 Mar;123(3):745-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Robert E Dales
Sabit Cakmak
Stan Judek
Tom Dann
Frances Coates
Jeffrey R Brook
Richard T Burnett
Author Affiliation
University of Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. rdales@ottawahospital.on.ca
Source
Chest. 2003 Mar;123(3):745-50
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - immunology
Asthma - epidemiology - microbiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Ontario - epidemiology
Pollen
Rain
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Seasons
Spores, Fungal - immunology
Abstract
To document the existence and investigate the etiology of "thunderstorm asthma," which has been reported sporadically over the past 20 years.
We assessed the relationship between thunderstorms, air pollutants, aeroallergens, and asthma admissions to a children's hospital emergency department over a 6-year period.
During thunderstorm days (n = 151 days) compared to days without thunderstorms (n = 919 days), daily asthma visits increased from 8.6 to 10 (p
PubMed ID
12628873 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.