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Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131962
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23254
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Richard R Schneider
Grant Hauer
Dan Farr
W L Adamowicz
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ministik99@telus.net
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23254
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics - methods
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Ecosystem
Geography
Humans
Oil and Gas Fields
Petroleum - economics
Resource Allocation - economics - methods
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21858046 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate change is the primary driver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) range expansion at the northern extent of its range; land use is secondary.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277274
Source
Ecol Evol. 2016 Sep;6(18):6435-6451
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
Kimberly L Dawe
Stan Boutin
Source
Ecol Evol. 2016 Sep;6(18):6435-6451
Date
Sep-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Quantifying the relative influence of multiple mechanisms driving recent range expansion of non-native species is essential for predicting future changes and for informing adaptation and management plans to protect native species. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been expanding their range into the North American boreal forest over the last half of the 20th century. This has already altered predator-prey dynamics in Alberta, Canada, where the distribution likely reaches the northern extent of its continuous range. Although current white-tailed deer distribution is explained by both climate and human land use, the influence each factor had on the observed range expansion would depend on the spatial and temporal pattern of these changes. Our objective was to quantify the relative importance of land use and climate change as drivers of white-tailed deer range expansion and to predict decadal changes in white-tailed deer distribution in northern Alberta for the first half of the 21st century. An existing species distribution model was used to predict past decadal distributions of white-tailed deer which were validated using independent data. The effects of climate and land use change were isolated by comparing predictions under theoretical "no-change between decades" scenarios, for each factor, to predictions under observed climate and land use change. Climate changes led to more than 88%, by area, of the increases in probability of white-tailed deer presence across all decades. The distribution is predicted to extend 100 km further north across the northeastern Alberta boreal forest as climate continues to change over the first half of the 21st century.
PubMed ID
27777720 View in PubMed
Less detail

Contribution of late-litter juveniles to the population dynamics of snowshoe hares.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311695
Source
Oecologia. 2021 Apr; 195(4):949-957
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2021
Author
Michael J L Peers
Jody R Reimer
Yasmine N Majchrzak
Allyson K Menzies
Emily K Studd
Rudy Boonstra
Alice J Kenney
Charles J Krebs
Mark O'Donoghue
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. michaeljlpeers@gmail.com.
Source
Oecologia. 2021 Apr; 195(4):949-957
Date
Apr-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Hares
Humans
Population Dynamics
Predatory Behavior
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Determining the factors driving cyclic dynamics in species has been a primary focus of ecology. For snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), explanations of their 10-year population cycles most commonly feature direct predation during the peak and decline, in combination with their curtailment in reproduction. Hares are thought to stop producing third and fourth litters during the cyclic decline and do not recover reproductive output for several years. The demographic effects of these reproductive changes depend on the consistency of this pattern across cycles, and the relative contribution to population change of late-litter versus early litter juveniles. We used monitoring data on snowshoe hares in Yukon, Canada, to examine the contribution of late-litter juveniles to the demography of their cycles, by assigning litter group for individuals caught in autumn based on body size and capture date. We found that fourth-litter juveniles occur consistently during the increase phase of each cycle, but are rare and have low over-winter survival (0.05) suggesting that population increase is unlikely to be caused by their occurrence. The proportion of third-litter juveniles captured in the autumn remains relatively constant across cycle phases, while over-winter survival rates varies particularly for earlier-litter juveniles (0.14-0.39). Juvenile survival from all litters is higher during the population increase and peak, relative to the low and decline. Overall, these results suggest that the transition from low phase to population growth may stem in large part from changes in juvenile survival as opposed to increased reproductive output through the presence of a 4th litter.
PubMed ID
33743069 View in PubMed
Less detail

Decoupling the effects of food and density on life-history plasticity of wild animals using field experiments: Insights from the steward who sits in the shadow of its tail, the North American red squirrel.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304704
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2020 Nov; 89(11):2397-2414
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2020
Author
Ben Dantzer
Andrew G McAdam
Murray M Humphries
Jeffrey E Lane
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2020 Nov; 89(11):2397-2414
Date
Nov-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Long-term studies of wild animals provide the opportunity to investigate how phenotypic plasticity is used to cope with environmental fluctuations and how the relationships between phenotypes and fitness can be dependent upon the ecological context. Many previous studies have only investigated life-history plasticity in response to changes in temperature, yet wild animals often experience multiple environmental fluctuations simultaneously. This requires field experiments to decouple which ecological factor induces plasticity in fitness-relevant traits to better understand their population-level responses to those environmental fluctuations. For the past 32 years, we have conducted a long-term integrative study of individually marked North American red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben in the Yukon, Canada. We have used multi-year field experiments to examine the physiological and life-history responses of individual red squirrels to fluctuations in food abundance and conspecific density. Our long-term observational study and field experiments show that squirrels can anticipate increases in food availability and density, thereby decoupling the usual pattern where animals respond to, rather than anticipate, an ecological change. As in many other study systems, ecological factors that can induce plasticity (such as food and density) covary. However, our field experiments that manipulate food availability and social cues of density (frequency of territorial vocalizations) indicate that increases in social (acoustic) cues of density in the absence of additional food can induce similar life-history plasticity, as does experimental food supplementation. Changes in the levels of metabolic hormones (glucocorticoids) in response to variation in food and density are one mechanism that seems to induce this adaptive life-history plasticity. Although we have not yet investigated the energetic response of squirrels to elevated density or its association with life-history plasticity, energetics research in red squirrels has overturned several standard pillars of knowledge in physiological ecology. We show how a tractable model species combined with integrative studies can reveal how animals cope with resource fluctuations through life-history plasticity.
PubMed ID
32929740 View in PubMed
Less detail

Decoupling the effects of food and density on life-history plasticity of wild animals using field experiments: Insights from the steward who sits in the shadow of its tail, the North American red squirrel.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311551
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2020 11; 89(11):2397-2414
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study, Veterinary
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
11-2020
Author
Ben Dantzer
Andrew G McAdam
Murray M Humphries
Jeffrey E Lane
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2020 11; 89(11):2397-2414
Date
11-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study, Veterinary
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild
Canada
Sciuridae
Tail
United States
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Long-term studies of wild animals provide the opportunity to investigate how phenotypic plasticity is used to cope with environmental fluctuations and how the relationships between phenotypes and fitness can be dependent upon the ecological context. Many previous studies have only investigated life-history plasticity in response to changes in temperature, yet wild animals often experience multiple environmental fluctuations simultaneously. This requires field experiments to decouple which ecological factor induces plasticity in fitness-relevant traits to better understand their population-level responses to those environmental fluctuations. For the past 32 years, we have conducted a long-term integrative study of individually marked North American red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben in the Yukon, Canada. We have used multi-year field experiments to examine the physiological and life-history responses of individual red squirrels to fluctuations in food abundance and conspecific density. Our long-term observational study and field experiments show that squirrels can anticipate increases in food availability and density, thereby decoupling the usual pattern where animals respond to, rather than anticipate, an ecological change. As in many other study systems, ecological factors that can induce plasticity (such as food and density) covary. However, our field experiments that manipulate food availability and social cues of density (frequency of territorial vocalizations) indicate that increases in social (acoustic) cues of density in the absence of additional food can induce similar life-history plasticity, as does experimental food supplementation. Changes in the levels of metabolic hormones (glucocorticoids) in response to variation in food and density are one mechanism that seems to induce this adaptive life-history plasticity. Although we have not yet investigated the energetic response of squirrels to elevated density or its association with life-history plasticity, energetics research in red squirrels has overturned several standard pillars of knowledge in physiological ecology. We show how a tractable model species combined with integrative studies can reveal how animals cope with resource fluctuations through life-history plasticity.
PubMed ID
32929740 View in PubMed
Less detail

Demography of snowshoe hare population cycles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307368
Source
Ecology. 2020 03; 101(3):e02969
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2020
Author
Madan K Oli
Charles J Krebs
Alice J Kenney
Rudy Boonstra
Stan Boutin
James E Hines
Author Affiliation
Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, 110 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville, 32611, Florida, USA.
Source
Ecology. 2020 03; 101(3):e02969
Date
03-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Ecosystem
Hares
Population Density
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Cyclic fluctuations in abundance exhibited by some mammalian populations in northern habitats ("population cycles") are key processes in the functioning of many boreal and tundra ecosystems. Understanding population cycles, essentially demographic processes, necessitates discerning the demographic mechanisms that underlie numerical changes. Using mark-recapture data spanning five population cycles (1977-2017), we examined demographic mechanisms underlying the 9-10-yr cycles exhibited by snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) in southwestern Yukon, Canada. Snowshoe hare populations always decreased during winter and increased during summer; the balance between winter declines and summer increases characterized the four, multiyear cyclic phases: increase, peak, decline, and low. Little or no recruitment occurred during winter, but summer recruitment varied markedly across the four phases with the highest and lowest recruitment observed during the increase and decline phase, respectively. Population crashes during the decline were triggered by a substantial decline in winter survival and by a lack of subsequent summer recruitment. In contrast, initiation of the increase phase was triggered by a twofold increase in summer recruitment abetted secondarily by improvements in subsequent winter survival. We show that differences in peak density across cycles are explained by differences in overall population growth rate, amount of time available for population growth to occur, and starting population density. Demographic mechanisms underlying snowshoe hare population cycles were consistent across cycles in our study site but we do not yet know if similar demographic processes underlie population cycles in other northern snowshoe hare populations.
PubMed ID
31922605 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ecological insights from three decades of animal movement tracking across a changing Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304243
Source
Science. 2020 11 06; 370(6517):712-715
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
11-06-2020
Author
Sarah C Davidson
Gil Bohrer
Eliezer Gurarie
Scott LaPoint
Peter J Mahoney
Natalie T Boelman
Jan U H Eitel
Laura R Prugh
Lee A Vierling
Jyoti Jennewein
Emma Grier
Ophélie Couriot
Allicia P Kelly
Arjan J H Meddens
Ruth Y Oliver
Roland Kays
Martin Wikelski
Tomas Aarvak
Joshua T Ackerman
José A Alves
Erin Bayne
Bryan Bedrosian
Jerrold L Belant
Andrew M Berdahl
Alicia M Berlin
Dominique Berteaux
Joël Bêty
Dmitrijs Boiko
Travis L Booms
Bridget L Borg
Stan Boutin
W Sean Boyd
Kane Brides
Stephen Brown
Victor N Bulyuk
Kurt K Burnham
David Cabot
Michael Casazza
Katherine Christie
Erica H Craig
Shanti E Davis
Tracy Davison
Dominic Demma
Christopher R DeSorbo
Andrew Dixon
Robert Domenech
Götz Eichhorn
Kyle Elliott
Joseph R Evenson
Klaus-Michael Exo
Steven H Ferguson
Wolfgang Fiedler
Aaron Fisk
Jérôme Fort
Alastair Franke
Mark R Fuller
Stefan Garthe
Gilles Gauthier
Grant Gilchrist
Petr Glazov
Carrie E Gray
David Grémillet
Larry Griffin
Michael T Hallworth
Autumn-Lynn Harrison
Holly L Hennin
J Mark Hipfner
James Hodson
James A Johnson
Kyle Joly
Kimberly Jones
Todd E Katzner
Jeff W Kidd
Elly C Knight
Michael N Kochert
Andrea Kölzsch
Helmut Kruckenberg
Benjamin J Lagassé
Sandra Lai
Jean-François Lamarre
Richard B Lanctot
Nicholas C Larter
A David M Latham
Christopher J Latty
James P Lawler
Don-Jean Léandri-Breton
Hansoo Lee
Stephen B Lewis
Oliver P Love
Jesper Madsen
Mark Maftei
Mark L Mallory
Buck Mangipane
Mikhail Y Markovets
Peter P Marra
Rebecca McGuire
Carol L McIntyre
Emily A McKinnon
Tricia A Miller
Sander Moonen
Tong Mu
Gerhard J D M Müskens
Janet Ng
Kerry L Nicholson
Ingar Jostein Øien
Cory Overton
Patricia A Owen
Allison Patterson
Aevar Petersen
Ivan Pokrovsky
Luke L Powell
Rui Prieto
Petra Quillfeldt
Jennie Rausch
Kelsey Russell
Sarah T Saalfeld
Hans Schekkerman
Joel A Schmutz
Philipp Schwemmer
Dale R Seip
Adam Shreading
Mónica A Silva
Brian W Smith
Fletcher Smith
Jeff P Smith
Katherine R S Snell
Aleksandr Sokolov
Vasiliy Sokolov
Diana V Solovyeva
Mathew S Sorum
Grigori Tertitski
J F Therrien
Kasper Thorup
T Lee Tibbitts
Ingrid Tulp
Brian D Uher-Koch
Rob S A van Bemmelen
Steven Van Wilgenburg
Andrew L Von Duyke
Jesse L Watson
Bryan D Watts
Judy A Williams
Matthew T Wilson
James R Wright
Michael A Yates
David J Yurkowski
Ramunas Žydelis
Mark Hebblewhite
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
Source
Science. 2020 11 06; 370(6517):712-715
Date
11-06-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Acclimatization
Animal Migration
Animals
Archives
Arctic Regions
Ecological Parameter Monitoring
Population
Abstract
The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection of more than 200 standardized terrestrial and marine animal tracking studies from 1991 to the present. The AAMA supports public data discovery, preserves fundamental baseline data for the future, and facilitates efficient, collaborative data analysis. With AAMA-based case studies, we document climatic influences on the migration phenology of eagles, geographic differences in the adaptive response of caribou reproductive phenology to climate change, and species-specific changes in terrestrial mammal movement rates in response to increasing temperature.
PubMed ID
33154141 View in PubMed
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A framework for adaptive monitoring of the cumulative effects of human footprint on biodiversity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105098
Source
Environ Monit Assess. 2014 Jun;186(6):3605-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
A Cole Burton
David Huggard
Erin Bayne
Jim Schieck
Péter Sólymos
Tyler Muhly
Dan Farr
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, Edmonton, AB, Canada, acburton@ualberta.ca.
Source
Environ Monit Assess. 2014 Jun;186(6):3605-17
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Biodiversity
Conservation of Natural Resources
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Abstract
Effective ecological monitoring is imperative in a human-dominated world, as our ability to manage functioning ecosystems will depend on understanding biodiversity responses to anthropogenic impacts. Yet, most monitoring efforts have either been narrowly focused on particular sites, species and stressors - thus inadequately considering the cumulative effects of multiple, interacting impacts at scales of management relevance - or too unfocused to provide specific guidance. We propose a cumulative effects monitoring framework that integrates multi-scaled surveillance of trends in biodiversity and land cover with targeted evaluation of hypothesized drivers of change. The framework is grounded in a flexible conceptual model and uses monitoring to generate and test empirical models that relate the status of diverse taxonomic groups to the nature and extent of human "footprint" and other landscape attributes. An adaptive cycle of standardized sampling, model development, and model evaluation provides a means to learn about the system and guide management. Additional benefits of the framework include standardized data on status and trend for a wide variety of biodiversity elements, spatially explicit models for regional planning and scenario evaluation, and identification of knowledge gaps for complementary research. We describe efforts to implement the framework in Alberta, Canada, through the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, and identify key challenges to be addressed.
PubMed ID
24488328 View in PubMed
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Hair cortisol as a reliable indicator of stress physiology in the snowshoe hare: Influence of body region, sex, season, and predator-prey population dynamics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature306415
Source
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2020 08 01; 294:113471
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-01-2020
Author
Sophia G Lavergne
Michael J L Peers
Gabriela Mastromonaco
Yasmine N Majchrzak
Anandu Nair
Stan Boutin
Rudy Boonstra
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: sophialavergne@gmail.com.
Source
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2020 08 01; 294:113471
Date
08-01-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Biomarkers - metabolism
Canada
Female
Hair - chemistry
Hares - anatomy & histology - metabolism
Hydrocortisone - metabolism
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System - physiology
Lynx - physiology
Male
Population Dynamics
Predatory Behavior
Seasons
Sex Characteristics
Stress, Physiological
Abstract
Hair cortisol concentration is increasingly used as a convenient, non-invasive, and integrative measure of physiology and health in natural populations of mammals. However, the use of this index is potentially confounded by individual variation in body region-specific differences in cortisol deposition rates. Here we examine correlations in cortisol concentrations in hair collected from the ear, shoulder, and thigh of wild snowshoe hares, Lepus americanus, as well as the influence of sex on cortisol measurements. We further evaluated this technique's ability to capture seasonal and cyclical patterns of snowshoe hare glucocorticoid secretion from 2013 to 2015 in the southwestern Yukon (Canada). We found positive correlations (R2 = 0.20-0.32) in all pairwise comparisons among body regions, and differences among individuals accounted for the greatest proportion of variance (47.3%) in measurements. From 2013 to 2015 the hares' primary predator - Canada lynx - approximately doubled in population abundance. We found a significant increase in hare hair cortisol concentrations across this time period. Cortisol indices were higher in summer than winter pelage, reflecting predicted physiological responses to seasonal variation in food availability and individual risk. Variation in hair cortisol concentrations was more similar to long-term (weeks-months) integrative indices of adrenal capacity than point samples of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Overall, we find that hair cortisol analysis is a simple and useful tool for estimations of population-level stress physiology in wild mammals, and sampling of core body regions with consistent moulting patterns produced the most robust results in this species.
PubMed ID
32234297 View in PubMed
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Impact of Climate Change on the Small Mammal Community of the Yukon Boreal Forest.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299425
Source
Integr Zool. 2019 Apr 14; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-14-2019
Author
Charles J Krebs
Rudy Boonstra
B Scott Gilbert
Alice J Kenney
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 Canada.
Source
Integr Zool. 2019 Apr 14; :
Date
Apr-14-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Long-term monitoring is critical to determine stability and sustainability of wildlife populations, and if change has occurred, why. We have followed population density changes in the small mammal community in the boreal forest of the southern Yukon for 46 years with density estimates by live trapping on 3-5 unmanipulated grids in spring and autumn. This community consists of 10 species and was responsible for 9% of the energy flow in the herbivore component of this ecosystem from 1986-96, but this increased to 38% from 2003-2014. Small mammals, although small in size, are large in the transfer of energy from plants to predators and decomposers. Four species form the bulk of the biomass. There was shift in the dominant species from the 1970s to the 2000s, with Myodes rutilus increasing in relative abundance by 22% and Peromyscus maniculatus decreasing by 22%. From 2007 to 2018 Myodes comprised 63% of the catch, Peromyscus 20%, and Microtus species 17%. Possible causes of these changes involve climate change which is increasing primary production in this boreal forest and an associated increase in the abundance of three rodent predators, marten (Martes americana), ermine (Mustela erminea), and coyotes (Canis latrans). Following and understanding these and potential future changes will require long-term monitoring studies on a large scale to measure metapopulation dynamics. The small mammal community in northern Canada is being affected by climate change and cannot remain stable. Changes will be critically dependent on food-web interactions that are species specific. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
30983064 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.