People of South-Asian origin have an increased prevalence of coronary artery disease. Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is effective, South Asians are among the least likely people to participate in these programs. Automatic referral increases CR use and may reduce access inequalities. This study qualitatively explored whether CR referral knowledge and access varied among South-Asian patients. Participants were South-Asian cardiac patients receiving treatment at hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Each hospital refers to CR via one offour methods: automatically through paper or electronically, through discussion with allied health professionals (liaison referral), or through referral at the physician's discretion. Data were collected via interviews and analyzed using interpretive-descriptive analysis. Four themes emerged: the importance of predischarge CR discussions with healthcare providers, limited knowledge of CR, ease of the referral process for facilitators of CR attendance, and participants'needs for personal autonomy regarding their decision to attend CR. Liaison referral was perceived to be the most suitable referral method for participants. It facilitated communication between patients and providers, ensuring improved understanding of CR. Automatic referral may not be as well suited to this population because of reduced patient-provider communication.
The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations.
South Asians (SA) are predisposed to developing premature coronary heart disease (CHD), partly due to the early onset of classic risk factors, including physical inactivity. The nature of physical activity (PA) environments in South Asians in Canada remains unknown. Our objective was to examine differences in PA environments for South Asian vs White Caucasian (WC) CHD patients. In a cross-sectional study, 2657 hospitalized CHD patients in Ontario completed The Perceived Environments Related to Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess their home and neighborhood environment, perceived neighborhood safety and availability of recreational facilities. Patients self-reporting their ethnocultural background as WC (N = 1301, 48.6%) or SA (N = 171, 6.4%) were included in this study. South Asians were significantly younger, had lower body mass index, higher levels of education, lower income, were less likely to smoke and reside rurally, and were more likely to be married, have diabetes mellitus and have experienced prior myocardial infarction (MI) than WC patients. South Asians also had lower availability of home exercise equipment and perceived convenience of local PA facilities, but better and safer neighborhood environments than WC patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that SA ethnocultural background remained significantly related to reduced availability of home exercise equipment and fewer convenient local PA facilities. Since physical inactivity is an important CHD risk factor, and SA ethnocultural background is associated with high CHD risk, this may represent a novel target for risk reduction. Thus, further research is required to optimize SA awareness of the need for PA, and access to equipment and facilities.
Despite the evidence of benefit, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remains highly underutilized. The present study examined the effect of two inpatient and one outpatient strategy on CR utilization: allied healthcare provider completion of referral (a policy that had been endorsed and approved by the cardiac program leadership in advance; PRE-APPROVED); CR intake appointment booked before hospital discharge (PRE-BOOKED); and early outpatient education provided at the CR program shortly after inpatient discharge (EARLY ED).In this prospective observational study, 2,635 stable cardiac inpatients from 11 Ontario hospitals completed a sociodemographic survey, and clinical data were extracted from charts. One year later, participants were a mailed survey that assessed CR use. Participating inpatient units and CR programs to which patients were referred were coded to reflect whether each of the strategies was used (yes/no). The effect of each strategy on participants' CR referral and enrollment was examined using generalized estimating equations.
A total of 1,809 participants completed the post-test survey. Adjusted analyses revealed that the implementation of one of the inpatient strategies was significantly related to greater referral and enrollment (PRE-APPROVED: OR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.26 to 3.05, and OR = 2.91, 95%CI = 2.20 to 3.85, respectively). EARLY ED also resulted in significantly greater enrollment (OR = 4.85, 95%CI = 2.96 to 7.95).
These readily-implementable strategies could significantly increase access to and enrollment in CR for the cardiac population. The impact of these strategies on wait times warrants exploration.
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Cites: J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2012 Nov;13(11):727-3422885529
Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to reduce mortality and is a recommended component in clinical practice guidelines, CR referral and utilization rates remain low. Referral strategies have been implemented to increase CR use but have yet to be compared concurrently. To determine the optimal strategy to maximize CR referral, enrollment, and participation, we evaluated 3 referral strategies compared with usual care: "automatic" only via discharge order or electronic record, health care provider liaison only, or a combined approach.
In this prospective controlled study, 2635 inpatients with coronary artery disease from 11 Ontario, Canada, hospitals using 1 of the 4 referral strategies completed a sociodemographic survey, and clinical data were extracted from medical charts. One year later, 1809 participants completed a mailed survey that assessed CR utilization. Referral strategies were compared using generalized estimating equations to control for effect of hospital.
Adjusted analyses revealed referral strategy was significantly related to CR referral and enrollment (P
Diabetes guidelines recommend aggressive screening for type 2 diabetes in Asian patients because they are considered to have a higher risk of developing diabetes and potentially worse prognosis. We determined incidence of diabetes and risk of death or macrovascular complications by sex among major Asian subgroups, South Asian and Chinese, and white patients with newly diagnosed diabetes.
Using population-based administrative data from British Columbia and Alberta, Canada (1997-1998 to 2006-2007), we identified patients with newly diagnosed diabetes aged =35 years and followed them for up to 10 years for death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. Ethnicity was determined using validated surname algorithms.
There were 15,066 South Asian, 17,754 Chinese, and 244,017 white patients with newly diagnosed diabetes. Chinese women and men had the lowest incidence of diabetes relative to that of white or South Asian patients, who had the highest incidence. Mortality in those with newly diagnosed diabetes was lower in South Asian (hazard ratio 0.69 [95% CI 0.62-0.76], P
Cites: J Public Health Med. 1999 Dec;21(4):401-611469361
Cites: Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Aug;89(2):189-9520363043
With the objectives of clarifying the concepts related to "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome" and "risk stratification" and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group presents an executive summary of a detailed analysis and position paper that offers a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The above concepts overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider ethnicity-related risk factors in order to appropriately evaluate all individuals in their diverse patient populations.
Current approaches to cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment have limitations. Subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA) as determined by carotid ultrasound is an independent predictor of myocardial infarction and stroke and can refine CV risk assessment.
We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of SCA in a multiethnic population classified as low risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events by the Framingham Risk Assessment Model.
We conducted a cross-sectional population study in 1015 Canadian adults of Caucasian European, South Asian, Chinese and Aboriginal ancestry. CHD risk was calculated by the 10-year Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Novel and conventional CHD risk factors were measured and high-resolution carotid ultrasound was performed. SCA was defined as carotid intima media thickness (IMT) >or=75th percentile adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity.
Seven hundred and fifty two (74%) participants were classified as low risk by FRS. Of these, 175 (23%) had evidence of SCA. Independent predictors of SCA among low-risk subjects included female sex, systolic blood pressure, and apolipoprotein B.
Many individuals classified at low CHD risk by the FRS have SCA and are at increased long-term risk for vascular events. Carotid IMT can identify subjects with SCA, who may benefit from early intervention.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) was reported to be a common disorder occurring in 5% to 15% of the general population and to be frequently associated with serious complications. The reported high prevalence and complication rates of MVP have been challenged recently by the findings of the Framingham Heart Study, which was conducted in a Caucasian population; the findings in other ethnic groups remain uncertain. The prevalence of MVP was studied in a true population sample comprising 972 Canadians of South Asian (n=336), European (n=322) and Chinese (n=314) descent. MVP was diagnosed by two-dimensional echocardiography. The prevalence of MVP for the entire study cohort was 2.7% and did not differ significantly between the three ethnic groups evaluated (2.7% in South Asian, 3.1% in European and 2.2% in Chinese [P=0.79]). Age, sex, history of cardiac risk factors, blood pressure, abnormalities on electrocardiography, left atrial size, left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters and volumes, and left ventricular ejection fraction were similar in subjects with and without MVP. There was a trend toward lower body mass index in subjects with MVP compared to those without MVP (24.5+/-5.5 kg/m(2) versus 26.0+/-4.3 kg/m(2), respectively, P=0.10). The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, including history of angina, previous myocardial infarction, previous cardiac surgery and previous stroke, was similar in subjects with MVP (7.7%) and in those without MVP (6.7%) (P=0.84). The authors concluded that MVP has a much lower prevalence than previously estimated and the prevalence of MVP is similar among different ethnic groups. From a population perspective, the prevalence of serious cardiovascular complications associated with MVP is low.