Analyse gender similarities and differences in the consequences of childhood sexual abuse for health and well-being.
Comparative analysis of 28 in-depth interviews with 14 purposefully chosen participants, seven women and seven men, who had experienced childhood sexual abuse; two interviews were conducted with each participant.
The participants expressed a journey of deep and silent suffering which seems, for them, to be endless and almost unbearable. All of them have suffered from complex health problems since childhood. A gender difference was shown in the tendency of women to internalize their emotional pain while the men had a tendency to externalize it.
It is important for health professionals to be aware of the symptoms and consequences of child sexual abuse in order to provide support, appropriate care and treatment for the survivors. Finally, preventive and long lasting public health measures have to be taken in order to prevent children from experiencing such serious trauma.
Previous studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse can have extensive and serious consequences. The aim of this research was to do a qualitative study of the consequences of childhood sexual abuse for Icelandic men's health and well-being. Phenomenology was the methodological approach of the study. Totally 14 interviews were conducted, two per individual, and analysed based on the Vancouver School of Phenomenology. The main results of the study showed that the men describe deep and almost unbearable suffering, affecting their entire life, of which there is no alleviation in sight. The men have lived in repressed silence most of their lives and have come close to taking their own lives. What stopped them from committing suicide was revealing to others what happened to them which set them free in a way. The men experienced fear- or rage-based shock at the time of the trauma and most of them endured the attack by dissociation, disconnecting psyche and body and have difficulties reconnecting. They had extremely difficult childhoods, living with indisposition, bullying, learning difficulties and behavioural problems. Some have, from a young age, numbed themselves with alcohol and elicit drugs. They have suffered psychologically and physically and have had relational and sexual intimacy problems. The consequences of the abuse surfaced either immediately after the shock or many years later and developed into complex post-traumatic stress disorder. Because of perceived societal prejudice, it was hard for the men to seek help. This shows the great need for professionals to be alert to the possible consequences of childhood sexual abuse in their practice to reverse the damaging consequences on their health and well-being. We conclude that living in repressed silence after a trauma, like childhood sexual abuse, can be dangerous for the health, well-being and indeed the very life of the survivor.
Older people are being encouraged to be physically active for as long as possible as a preventive measure against disease and functional decline. It remains, however, uncertain how living in a retirement community affects physical activity (PA).
This study was conducted to understand the PA experiences of older women living in retirement communities and what they experience as facilitators of and barriers to PA.
The study was qualitative and guided by the Vancouver School of doing phenomenology, a unique blend of phenomenology, hermeneutics, and constructivism.
Participants were 10 women, aged from 72 to 97 years (mean=84 years). In-depth interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed.
A model was constructed with 3 main themes: (1) the women themselves, including their experienced health condition, individual aspects of functioning, and various personal factors; (2) the physical environment; and (3) the social environment. These main themes all include subthemes of experienced influences on PA, such as health, design of housing and environment, and local culture. These influences could both facilitate and hinder PA, depending on the context. The facilitating effects of good outdoor areas, accessible physical training facilities, a familiar neighborhood, and finding joy in PA were clear in the study. The barriers included worsening health, a colder climate with ice and wind, and lack of a PA culture within the retirement community.
An older woman's residence may strongly influence her ability and motivation to be physically active. Physical therapists should acquaint themselves with the facilitators of and barriers to PA of women within retirement communities and use that knowledge to influence the physical and social environment and to target PA interventions to the women themselves.
Iceland is sparsely populated but social justice and equity has been emphasised within healthcare. The aim of the study is to examine healthcare services in Fjallabyggð, in rural northern Iceland, from users' perspective and evaluate social justice, access and quality of healthcare in an age of austerity. Mixed-method approach with transformative design was used. First, data were collected with questionnaires (response rate of 53% [N=732] in 2009 and 30% [N=415] in 2012), and analysed statistically, followed by 10 interviews with healthcare users (2009 and 2014). The results were integrated and interpreted within Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model. There was significantly less satisfaction with accessibility and variety of healthcare services in 2012 after services downsizing. Solid primary healthcare, good local elderly care, some freedom in healthcare choice and reliable emergency services were considered fundamental for life in a rural area. Equal access to healthcare is part of a fundamental human right. In times of economic downturn, people in rural areas, who are already vulnerable, may become even more vulnerable and disadvantaged, seriously threatening social justice and equity. With severe cutbacks in vitally important healthcare services people may eventually choose to self-migrate.
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