Measures of eight frame-specific self-evaluations of ability in mathematics were used to predict general mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy. Participants were 900 Norwegian students in Grade 6 (n = 277), Grade 9 (n = 236), Grade 11 (n = 263), and adult students attending senior high school (n = 124). Four items measured frame-specific self-evaluation of achievement based on external frames of reference whereas four items measured frame-specific self-evaluation based on internal frames of reference. Regression analyses were used to test relations between the frame-specific self-evaluations and general mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy. The analyses indicated that self-evaluation based on comparison with other students in class (an external frame of reference) and on comparison of mathematics achievement with achievement in other school subjects (an internal frame of reference) were robust predictors of both mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy. The analyses also indicated that students are using multiple frames of reference when evaluating their mathematics ability. Implications of the result for the internal-external frame of reference model are discussed.
We examined how final grades in mathematics and verbal arts in the first year of high school (Grade 11) were predicted in a Norwegian population by sex, previous grades in middle school (Grade 10), self-concept, self-efficacy at a domain-specific level, and intrinsic motivation. Direct and indirect relations were examined by means of a series of regression analyses. Participants were 483 students from six Norwegian high schools. End of term grades in high school correlated positively with grades in middle school in both mathematics (r = .62) and verbal arts (r = .55). The relation between grades at the two points of time was to a large extent mediated through mathematics, verbal self-concept, and self-efficacy. Intrinsic motivation also correlated positively with subsequent achievement (r = .63 and .42 in mathematics and verbal arts, respectively). However, intrinsic motivation had little predictive value for subsequent grades over and above the prediction made by self-concept and self-efficacy. Thus, self-concept and self-efficacy were the strongest predictors of subsequent grades. Predictions from the Internal/External frame of reference model were supported for self-concept but not for domain-specific self-efficacy.
In their daily teaching and classroom management, teachers inevitably communicate and represent values. The purpose of this study was to explore relations between teachers' perception of school level values represented by the goal structure of the school and value consonance (the degree to which they felt that they shared the prevailing norms and values at the school), teachers' feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. The participants were 231 Norwegian teachers in elementary school and middle school. Data were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Teachers' perception of mastery goal structure was strongly and positively related to value consonance and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, whereas performance goal structure, in the SEM model, was not significantly related to these constructs. Furthermore, value consonance was positively related to teachers' feeling of belonging and job satisfaction, whereas emotional exhaustion was negatively associated with job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was the strongest predictor of motivation to leave the teaching profession. A practical implication of the study is that educational goals and values should be explicitly discussed and clarified, both by education authorities and at the school level.