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Adequacy of food spending is related to housing expenditures among lower-income Canadian households.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161594
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2007 Dec;10(12):1464-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, FitzGerald Building Room 326, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 3E2.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2007 Dec;10(12):1464-73
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Budgets
Canada
Costs and Cost Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Food - economics
Food Supply - economics - statistics & numerical data
Housing - economics
Humans
Income
Nutrition Surveys
Poverty
Abstract
A number of studies have pointed to the pressure that housing costs can exert on the resources available for food. The objectives of the present study were to characterise the relationship between the proportion of income absorbed by housing and the adequacy of household food expenditures across the Canadian population and within income quintiles; and to elucidate the impact of receipt of a housing subsidy on adequacy of food expenditures among low-income tenant households.
The 2001 Survey of Household Spending, conducted by Statistics Canada, was a national cross-sectional survey that collected detailed information on expenditures on goods and services. The adequacy of food spending was assessed in relation to the cost of a basic nutritious diet.
Canada.
The person with primary responsibility for financial maintenance from 15 535 households from all provinces and territories.
As the proportion of income allocated to housing increased, food spending adequacy declined significantly among households in the three lowest income quintiles. After accounting for household income and composition, receipt of a housing subsidy was associated with an improvement in adequacy of food spending among low-income tenant households, but still mean food spending fell below the cost of a basic nutritious diet even among subsidised households.
This study indicates that housing costs compromise the food access of some low-income households and speaks to the need to re-examine policies related to housing affordability and income adequacy.
PubMed ID
17764603 View in PubMed
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Assessing the relevance of neighbourhood characteristics to the household food security of low-income Toronto families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145125
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul;13(7):1139-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Boulevard EPN 4005, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. sharon.kirkpatrick@nih.gov
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul;13(7):1139-48
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Commerce - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
Although the sociodemographic characteristics of food-insecure households have been well documented, there has been little examination of neighbourhood characteristics in relation to this problem. In the present study we examined the association between household food security and neighbourhood features including geographic food access and perceived neighbourhood social capital.
Cross-sectional survey and mapping of discount supermarkets and community food programmes.
Twelve high-poverty neighbourhoods in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Respondents from 484 low-income families who had children and who lived in rental accommodations.
Food insecurity was pervasive, affecting two-thirds of families with about a quarter categorized as severely food insecure, indicative of food deprivation. Food insecurity was associated with household factors including income and income source. However, food security did not appear to be mitigated by proximity to food retail or community food programmes, and high rates of food insecurity were observed in neighbourhoods with good geographic food access. While low perceived neighbourhood social capital was associated with higher odds of food insecurity, this effect did not persist once we accounted for household sociodemographic factors.
Our findings raise questions about the extent to which neighbourhood-level interventions to improve factors such as food access or social cohesion can mitigate problems of food insecurity that are rooted in resource constraints. In contrast, the results reinforce the importance of household-level characteristics and highlight the need for interventions to address the financial constraints that underlie problems of food insecurity.
PubMed ID
20196916 View in PubMed
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The Chief Public Health Officer's report on health inequalities: what are the implications for public health practitioners and researchers?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147895
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Mar-Apr;100(2):93-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. sharon.kirkpatrick@ucalgary.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Mar-Apr;100(2):93-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Canada
Health Services Research
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Public Health
Public Health Practice
United States
Abstract
The first annual report of the Chief Public Health Officer on the State of Public Health in Canada draws notable attention to health inequalities in Canada. This report provides a compelling presentation of our current health status and the uneven distribution of health across the population, noting persistent and sizeable gaps in life expectancy, infant mortality, self-reported health, prevalence of chronic diseases, and other health indicators between higher- and lower-income groups, as well as the extraordinary disadvantage experienced by Canada's Aboriginal peoples. However, the report falls short of offering a critical approach to addressing and reducing health inequalities. It fails to stimulate thinking about integrated strategies by profiling current responses that do little to address the underlying structural drivers of health inequalities and ignoring the population health framework's recognition of the complex interactions among the determinants of health. Despite its shortcomings, the report shines a light on major health inequalities in Canada, providing a foundation for further action. Public health workers in this country must build on this foundation, working together and with all sectors and levels of government to identify and implement integrated strategies to reduce health inequalities and inequities in Canada.
PubMed ID
19839281 View in PubMed
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The correlates of current smoking among adult Métis: Evidence from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey and Métis Supplement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266987
Source
Can J Public Health. 2015;106(5):e271-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Christopher J Ryan
Martin J Cooke
Scott T Leatherdale
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Piotr Wilk
Source
Can J Public Health. 2015;106(5):e271-6
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
To examine the correlates of current smoking among Métis aged 18 years and older, with a particular focus on culturally-specific factors. Cultural factors included spirituality, knowledge of an Aboriginal language, membership in a Métis organization and attendance at Métis cultural events. Demographic, geographic, socio-economic and health-related variables were also considered.
Data from 6,610 adult Métis aged 18 years and older who responded to the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey and Métis supplement were used to examine the correlates of current smoking using sequential binary logistic regression modelling.
Overall, 39.9% of adult Métis respondents in the sample were current smokers. Adult Métis who reported a high level of spirituality were less likely to be current smokers. Those who spoke an Aboriginal language, or lived in a house where an Aboriginal language was spoken, were more likely to be current smokers. Being a member of a Métis organization and attending cultural events were not independently associated with current smoking. Métis with higher household income, greater education, higher self-perceived health, and greater physical activity participation were less likely to be current smokers, whereas those who reported heavy alcohol consumption were more likely to be current smokers.
The results of this study suggest that interventions aimed at reducing smoking among adult Métis might be more successful if they include some connection to spirituality. It is also evident that co-occurring risk behaviours, in addition to demographic and socio-economic factors, are important considerations when developing interventions to reduce smoking among this population.
PubMed ID
26451987 View in PubMed
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The correlates of physical activity among adult Métis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298509
Source
Ethn Health. 2018 08; 23(6):629-648
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2018
Author
Christopher J Ryan
Martin Cooke
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Scott T Leatherdale
Piotr Wilk
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health and Health Systems , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Canada.
Source
Ethn Health. 2018 08; 23(6):629-648
Date
08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Culture
Diagnostic Self Evaluation
Exercise
Female
Health status
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Socioeconomic Factors
Spirituality
Surveys and Questionnaires
Walking
Abstract
Métis, with a population of close to 390,000 people, are a culturally distinct and constitutionally recognized Aboriginal group in Canada that suffers from poorer overall health than non-Aboriginal Canadians. One important predictor of good health is physical activity. Guided by frameworks based on social and Aboriginal-specific determinants, we investigated the correlates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and active transportation (walking) among adult Métis, with a particular focus on how culturally specific variables were associated with these two types of activity. We also examined how demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors were associated with physical activity.
We used data from Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey and Métis Supplement to analyze the correlates of physical activity among Métis aged 20-64, using a series of logistic regression models.
Having attended a Métis cultural event in the past year was positively associated with LTPA, as was a high level of spirituality. Similarly, those who had attended a cultural event in the last year were more likely to report a high level of active transportation. Speaking an Aboriginal language and being a member of a Métis organization were not independently associated with the two types of physical activity. Self-perceived health, being male and household income were other correlates positively associated with LTPA, whereas age, body mass index and smoking were negatively associated with this type of activity. Active transportation was positively associated with self-perceived health and being female, while negatively associated with age and body mass index.
The results of this study suggest that interventions aimed at increasing physical activity among adult Métis might be more successful if they are connected to cultural activities and spirituality. This research also suggests that demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors are important considerations when designing initiatives to increase physical activity among adult Métis.
PubMed ID
28277016 View in PubMed
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The correlates of physical activity among adult Métis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280743
Source
Ethn Health. 2017 Feb 28;:1-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-28-2017
Author
Christopher J Ryan
Martin Cooke
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Scott T Leatherdale
Piotr Wilk
Source
Ethn Health. 2017 Feb 28;:1-20
Date
Feb-28-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Métis, with a population of close to 390,000 people, are a culturally distinct and constitutionally recognized Aboriginal group in Canada that suffers from poorer overall health than non-Aboriginal Canadians. One important predictor of good health is physical activity. Guided by frameworks based on social and Aboriginal-specific determinants, we investigated the correlates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and active transportation (walking) among adult Métis, with a particular focus on how culturally specific variables were associated with these two types of activity. We also examined how demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors were associated with physical activity.
We used data from Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey and Métis Supplement to analyze the correlates of physical activity among Métis aged 20-64, using a series of logistic regression models.
Having attended a Métis cultural event in the past year was positively associated with LTPA, as was a high level of spirituality. Similarly, those who had attended a cultural event in the last year were more likely to report a high level of active transportation. Speaking an Aboriginal language and being a member of a Métis organization were not independently associated with the two types of physical activity. Self-perceived health, being male and household income were other correlates positively associated with LTPA, whereas age, body mass index and smoking were negatively associated with this type of activity. Active transportation was positively associated with self-perceived health and being female, while negatively associated with age and body mass index.
The results of this study suggest that interventions aimed at increasing physical activity among adult Métis might be more successful if they are connected to cultural activities and spirituality. This research also suggests that demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors are important considerations when designing initiatives to increase physical activity among adult Métis.
PubMed ID
28277016 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity and participation in community food programs among low-income Toronto families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147885
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Mar-Apr;100(2):135-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. sharon.kirkpatrick@ucalgary.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Mar-Apr;100(2):135-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Confidence Intervals
Consumer Participation
Family Characteristics
Food Services - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Logistic Models
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Ontario
Poverty
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Responses to food insecurity in Canada have been dominated by community-based food initiatives, while little attention has been paid to potential policy directions to alleviate this problem. The purpose of this paper is to examine food security circumstances, participation in community food programs, and strategies employed in response to food shortages among a sample of low-income families residing in high-poverty Toronto neighbourhoods.
Data from surveys conducted with 484 families and neighbourhood mapping were analyzed.
Two thirds of families were food insecure over the past 12 months and over one quarter were severely food insecure, indicative of food deprivation. Only one in five families used food banks in the past 12 months and the odds of use were higher among food-insecure families. One third of families participated in children's food programs but participation was not associated with household food security. One in 20 families used a community kitchen, and participation in community gardens was even lower. It was relatively common for families to delay payments of bills or rent and terminate services as a way to free up money for food and these behaviours were positively associated with food insecurity.
While documenting high rates of food insecurity, this research challenges the presumption that current community-based food initiatives are reaching those in need. Public health practitioners have a responsibility to critically examine the programs that they deliver to assess their relevance to food-insecure households and to advocate for policy reforms to ensure that low-income households have adequate resources for food.
PubMed ID
19839291 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity in Canada: considerations for monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155340
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Jul-Aug;99(4):324-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. sharon.kirkpatrick@utoronto.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Jul-Aug;99(4):324-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Energy intake
Family Characteristics
Food Supply - economics
Health Policy
Humans
Hunger
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Status
Poverty
Public Policy
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Food insecurity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of health, is estimated to have affected almost one in ten Canadian households in 2004. Analyses of indicators of household food insecurity on several recent population health surveys have shed light on markers of vulnerability and the public health implications of this problem. However, the lack of detailed information on the economic circumstances of households and inconsistent measurement across surveys thwart attempts to develop a deeper understanding of problems of food insecurity. To better inform the development and evaluation of policies to address food insecurity among Canadian households, more effective monitoring is needed. This requires the consistent administration of a well-validated measure of food security on a population survey that routinely collects detailed information on the economic circumstances of households. Health professionals can contribute to the amelioration of problems of food insecurity in Canada by advocating for improved monitoring of the problem at a population level.
PubMed ID
18767280 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacies among Canadian adults and adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158692
Source
J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):604-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2. sharon.kirkpatrick@utoronto.ca
Source
J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):604-12
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet
Eating
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - economics
Humans
Infant
Male
Malnutrition
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Household food insecurity constrains food selection, but whether the dietary compromises associated with this problem heighten the risk of nutrient inadequacies is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between household food security status and adults' and children's dietary intakes and to estimate the prevalence of nutrient inadequacies among adults and children, differentiating by household food security status. We analyzed 24-h recall and household food security data for persons aged 1-70 y from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 2.2). The relationship between adults' and children's nutrient and food intakes and household food security status was assessed using regression analysis. Estimates of the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes by food security status and age/sex group were calculated using probability assessment methods. Poorer dietary intakes were observed among adolescents and adults in food-insecure households and many of the differences by food security status persisted after accounting for potential confounders in multivariate analyses. Higher estimated prevalences of nutrient inadequacy were apparent among adolescents and adults in food-insecure households, with the differences most marked for protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc. Among children, few differences in dietary intakes by household food security status were apparent and there was little indication of nutrient inadequacy. This study indicates that for adults and, to some degree, adolescents, food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intakes. These findings highlight the need for concerted public policy responses to ameliorate household food insecurity.
Notes
Erratum In: J Nutr. 2008 Jul;138(7):1399
PubMed ID
18287374 View in PubMed
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Food purchasing and food insecurity among low-income families in Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140960
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2010;71(3):e50-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Naomi Dachner
Laurie Ricciuto
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2010;71(3):e50-6
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Costs and Cost Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Food - economics
Humans
Income
Nutritive Value
Ontario
Poverty - psychology
Questionnaires
Single-Parent Family
Abstract
Factors underlying food-purchasing decisions were examined among a sample of low-income Toronto families.
A cross-sectional survey was completed among 485 families residing in high-poverty Toronto neighbourhoods. Food-security status was assessed using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Open-ended questions were included to examine respondents' food selection and management practices and their purchasing decisions for six indicator foods. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between factors influencing food-purchasing decisions, perceived food adequacy, and severity of food insecurity.
Twenty-two percent of families had been severely food insecure in the past 30 days. Respondents engaged in thrifty food shopping practices, such as frequenting discount supermarkets and budgeting carefully. Price was the most salient factor influencing food-purchasing decisions; the likelihood that families would report this factor increased with deteriorating food security. Preference, quality, and health considerations also guided food-purchasing decisions, but generally to a lesser extent as food insecurity increased. Household food supplies reflected constraints on food purchasing, and they diminished with increasing food insecurity.
Despite their resourcefulness, low-income families struggle to feed their families. Dietitians have an important role to play as advocates for adequate income supports to promote food security and nutritional health.
PubMed ID
20825694 View in PubMed
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10 records – page 1 of 1.