The role of menstrual and reproductive risk factors for gastric cancer has not been well studied.
This population-based case-control study included 326 women aged 20 to 74 years with gastric adenocarcinoma. Controls were 326 women frequency matched on age. Data for reproductive and/or hormonal exposure and gastric cancer risk factors were captured through self-administered questionnaire.
Later age at menarche was associated with increased risk for adenocarcinoma compared with menarche onset at younger than 13 years of age (13 to 14 years: odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-2.10; > or =15 years: OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.19-3.13). Compared with premenopause, natural menopause was associated with increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 0.98-4.05). Compared with nulliparity, 4 or more births were associated with decreased risk for gastric cancer, as was being pregnant for 5 months or longer if the first pregnancy occurred at younger than 24 years (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.96) or 25 years or older (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.38-1.18). Oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy were associated with a non-statistically significant decreased risk.
These findings suggest that hormonal factors associated with greater exposure to estrogen and/or progesterone may be associated with decreased risk for gastric cancer.
Comment In: Ann Epidemiol. 2007 Sep;17(9):721-217553698
To describe the lifetime prevalence of selected psychiatric disorders in Ontario women and to compare these estimates with use of mental health resources.
We obtained data from a survey of 3062 Ontario women, aged 25 to 74 years, who participated in the Women's Health Study. A 5-item scale assessed lifetime prevalence of 5 psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], and anorexia [AN] or bulimia [BN]). We assessed use of mental health services by comorbidity. We employed stratified random sampling to select study subjects. Prevalence estimates were weighted and 95%CIs were obtained using Taylor linearization techniques (1).
Nearly 30% of those surveyed reported at least 1 of the disorders studied. The most common were depression (27%) and anxiety (21%). Lifetime prevalence of PTSD, OCD, and AN or BN were 10.7%, 6.1%, and 3.9%, respectively. Successively younger birth cohorts displayed an increase in prevalence and a decrease in onset-age for all disorders. "Ever" use of mental health services was higher for women with 3 or more comorbid disorders (65%) than for those with no disorder (9.8%), or only 1 disorder (51.4%).
The results of this study highlight the need to conduct more research into the reasons for the low rates of professional service use, especially for women with high comorbidity. They also highlight the need to understand the phenomenon underlying the possibly increasing rates of disorders in younger birth cohorts, so that outreach strategies can be modified to accommodate differences in younger women.