Cancer is one of the most common causes of death among young individuals. The purpose of this study was to explore the risk of early death (the first five years after diagnosis) among children (0-14 years), adolescents (15-19 years), and young adults (20-24 years) with cancer in Norway, born during 1965-1985.
The overall and cancer-specific early deaths were explored by linking population-based national registers (including the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Cause of Death Registry) that include the entire population of Norway (approximately 1.3 million individuals). Hazard and sub-hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression analyses and competing risk models.
A total of 5,828 individuals were diagnosed with cancer (56.3 % males). During follow-up, 1,415 individuals died from cancer (60.2 % males) within five years after diagnosis. The hazard ratio (HR) of overall death of the cancer patients relative to the general population decreased from 1965 (from HR, 385.8 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 335.3, 443.4) in 1965-74 to HR, 19.7 (CI: 9.3, 41.5) in 2005-09). Over all, there were fewer cancer-related deaths among female compared with male patients (sub-hazard ratio (SHR), 0.83 (CI: 0.74, 0.92)). Except for all hematopoietic malignancies, adolescents and young adult patients had lower risk of cancer death than children.
The difference in risk of cancer and overall deaths between the cancer patients and the general population has been substantially reduced since 1965.
Erratum In: Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Dec;24(12):2253-6
According to Norwegian guidelines, infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis should be treated rapidly with antibiotics and a control test should be offered after 5-6 weeks. The purpose of the present registry study was to investigate Chlamydia treatment and the use of control tests among men and women tested for Chlamydia in South Trøndelag county in the period 2004-2006.
Data on all Chlamydia tests from men and women 15-59 years of age resident in South Trøndelag County were retrieved from the Department of Medical Microbiology at St. Olavs Hospital. Information about Norwegian pharmacies' handling of prescriptions for antibiotics were obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD).
8.5% (3,127/36 590) of those tested for Chlamydia in the study period were positive. Among those who were positive 87% (1,681/1 920) of women and 74% (909/1,207) of men bought antibiotics from a pharmacy within 4 weeks after the test was analyzed. The average time from available test result to treatment was 13.1 days (95% CI 12.7-13.5). Among those who received antibiotics, 41% (689/1,681) of women and 27% (247/909) of men were registered with a control test 4-16 weeks after the prescription was handled.
Compliance to guidelines for treatment and follow-up of people with a positive Chlamydia test is poor, especially among men.
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 May 6;131(8):80221556073
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is associated to infections and it has been suggested that vaccination can trigger the disease. However, little is known about the specific association between clinically manifest influenza/influenza vaccine and CFS/ME. As part of a registry surveillance of adverse effects after mass vaccination in Norway during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, we had the opportunity to estimate and contrast the risk of CFS/ME after infection and vaccination.
Using the unique personal identification number assigned to everybody who is registered as resident in Norway, we followed the complete Norwegian population as of October 1, 2009, through national registries of vaccination, communicable diseases, primary health, and specialist health care until December 31, 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) of CFS/ME, as diagnosed in the specialist health care services (diagnostic code G93.3 in the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10), after influenza infection and/or vaccination were estimated using Cox proportional-hazards regression.
The incidence rate of CFS/ME was 2.08 per 100,000 person-months at risk. The adjusted HR of CFS/ME after pandemic vaccination was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.04), while it was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.78-2.33) after being diagnosed with influenza infection during the peak pandemic period.
Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection was associated with a more than two-fold increased risk of CFS/ME. We found no indication of increased risk of CFS/ME after vaccination. Our findings are consistent with a model whereby symptomatic infection, rather than antigenic stimulation may trigger CFS/ME.
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a complex condition. Causal factors are not established, although underlying psychological or immunological susceptibility has been proposed. We studied primary care diagnoses for children with CFS/ME, with children with another hospital diagnosis (type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM]) and the general child population as comparison groups.
All Norwegian children born 1992-2012 constituted the study sample. Children with CFS/ME (n?=?1670) or T1DM (n?=?4937) were identified in the Norwegian Patient Register (NPR) (2008-2014). Children without either diagnosis constituted the general child population comparison group (n?=?1337508). We obtained information on primary care diagnoses from the Norwegian Directorate of Health. For each primary care diagnosis, the proportion and 99 % confidence interval (CI) within the three groups was calculated, adjusted for sex and age by direct standardization.
Children with CFS/ME were more often registered with a primary care diagnosis of weakness/general tiredness (89.9 % [99 % CI 88.0 to 91.8 %]) than children in either comparison group (T1DM: 14.5 % [99 % CI: 13.1 to 16.0 %], general child population: 11.1 % [99 % CI: 11.0 to 11.2 %]). Also, depressive disorder and anxiety disorder were more common in the CFS/ME group, as were migraine, muscle pain, and infections. In the 2 year period prior to the diagnoses, infectious mononucleosis was registered for 11.1 % (99 % CI 9.1 to 13.1 %) of children with CFS/ME and for 0.5 % (99 % CI (0.2 to 0.8 %) of children with T1DM. Of children with CFS/ME, 74.6 % (1292/1670) were registered with a prior primary care diagnosis of weakness / general tiredness. The time span from the first primary care diagnosis of weakness / general tiredness to the specialist health care diagnosis of CFS/ME was 1 year or longer for 47.8 %.
This large nationwide registry linkage study confirms that the clinical picture in CFS/ME is complex. Children with CFS/ME were frequently diagnosed with infections, supporting the hypothesis that infections may be involved in the causal pathway. The long time span often observed from the first diagnosis of weakness / general tiredness to the diagnosis of CFS/ME might indicate that the treatment of these patients is sometimes not optimal.
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The number of young cancer survivors has increased over the past few decades due to improvement in treatment regimens, and understanding of long-term effects among the survivors has become even more important. Educational achievements and choice of educational fields were explored here.
Five-year cancer survivors born in Norway during 1965-1985 (diagnosed
During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, a monovalent pandemic strain vaccine containing the oil-in-water adjuvant AS03 (Pandemrix®) was offered to the Norwegian population. The coverage among children reached 54%. Our aim was to estimate the risk of febrile seizure in children after exposure to pandemic influenza vaccination or infection.
The study population comprised 226,889 children born 2006-2009 resident in Norway per October 1st, 2009. Febrile seizure episodes were defined by emergency hospital admissions / emergency outpatient hospital care with International Classification of Diseases, Version 10, codes R56.0 or R56.8. The self-controlled case series method was applied to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in pre-defined risk periods compared to the background period. The total observation window was ± 180 days from exposure day. Among 113,068 vaccinated children, 656 (0.6%) had at least one febrile seizure episode.
The IRR of febrile seizures 1-3 days after vaccination was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-3.51). In the period 4-7 days after vaccination, no increased risk was observed. Among the 8172 children diagnosed with pandemic influenza, 84 (1.0%) had at least one febrile seizure episode. The IRR of febrile seizures on the same day as a diagnosis of influenza was 116.70 (95% CI: 62.81-216.90). In the period 1-3 days after a diagnosis of influenza, a tenfold increased risk was observed (IRR 10.12, 95% CI: 3.82 - 26.82).
In this large population-based study with precise timing of exposures and outcomes, we found a twofold increased risk of febrile seizures 1-3 days after pandemic influenza vaccination. However, we found that pandemic influenza infection was associated with a much stronger increase in risk of febrile seizures.
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Associations between influenza infection and sleep disorders are poorly studied. We investigated if pandemic influenza infection or vaccination with Pandemrix in 2009/2010 was associated with narcolepsy or hypersomnia in children and young adults.
We followed the Norwegian population under age 30 from January 2008 through December 2012 by linking national health registry data. Narcolepsy diagnoses were validated using hospital records. Risks of narcolepsy or hypersomnia were estimated as adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in Cox regression models with influenza infection and vaccination as time-dependent exposures.
Among the 1,638,526 persons under age 30 in Norway in 2009, 3.6% received a physician diagnosis of influenza during the pandemic, while 41.9% were vaccinated against pandemic influenza. Between October 1st 2009 and December 31st 2012, 72 persons had onset of narcolepsy and 305 were diagnosed with hypersomnia. The risk of a sleep disorder was associated with infection during the first six months, adjusted HR 3.31 with 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-10.79 for narcolepsy and adjusted HR 3.13 (95% CI, 1.12-8.76) for hypersomnia. The risk of narcolepsy was strongly associated with vaccination during the first six months adjusted HR 17.21 (95% CI, 6.28-47.14), while the adjusted HR for hypersomnia was 1.54 (95% CI, 0.81-2.93).
The study confirms an increased HR of narcolepsy following pandemic vaccination. Slightly increased HRs of narcolepsy and hypersomnia are also seen after influenza infection. However, the role of infection should be viewed with caution due to underreporting of influenza.
Vaccinations and infections are possible triggers of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, studies on GBS after vaccinations during the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic in 2009, show inconsistent results. Only few studies have addressed the role of influenza infection. We used information from national health data-bases with information on the total Norwegian population (N = 4,832,211). Cox regression analyses with time-varying covariates and self-controlled case series was applied. The risk of being hospitalized with GBS during the pandemic period, within 42 days after an influenza diagnosis or pandemic vaccination was estimated. There were 490 GBS cases during 2009-2012 of which 410 cases occurred after October 1, 2009 of which 46 new cases occurred during the peak period of the influenza pandemic. An influenza diagnosis was registered for 2.47% of the population and the vaccination coverage was 39.25%. The incidence rate ratio of GBS during the pandemic peak relative to other periods was 1.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.98]. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of GBS within 42 days after a diagnosis of pandemic influenza was 4.89 (95% CI 1.17-20.36). After pandemic vaccination the adjusted HR was 1.11 (95% CI 0.51-2.43). Our results indicated that there was a significantly increased risk of GBS during the pandemic season and after pandemic influenza infection. However, vaccination did not increase the risk of GBS. The small number of GBS cases in this study warrants caution in the interpretation of the findings.
Epilepsy affects around 70 million people worldwide. Psychiatric comorbidity may add to the burden of the disease. We studied substance use disorders and psychotic disorders among people with epilepsy from a population-based perspective.
Norwegian specialist health services (hospitals and outpatient clinics) report diagnoses for individual patients to the Norwegian Patient Register. We used information on subjects born in 1930-1994 who were registered with a diagnosis of epilepsy at least once during the five-year period of 2008-2012. We compared the proportion of people with epilepsy registered with substance use disorders (alcohol use disorders or non-alcohol drug use disorders) and psychotic disorders (schizophrenia spectrum disorders or bipolar disorder) with similar figures in the population without epilepsy. We applied chi-square tests and log-binomial regression for analysis.
Overall, 0.90% of the Norwegian adult population was registered with epilepsy in somatic hospitals during 2008-2012. The total proportion registered with alcohol use disorder was 5.74% among people with epilepsy and 1.29% in the population without epilepsy (age- and sex-adjusted relative risk [RR]: 4.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.22-4.62). The corresponding figures were 4.32% and 1.22% (RR 3.86 [95% CI: 3.67-4.06] for drug use disorder, 1.72% and 0.60% (RR 2.94 [95% CI: 2.71-3.19]) for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and 1.50% and 0.68% (RR 2.29 [95% CI: 2.10-2.49]) for bipolar disorder.
People with epilepsy were more often registered with substance use disorders and psychotic disorders than people without epilepsy. Psychiatric comorbidity requires particular attention in both diagnostic work-up and management of epilepsy, and creates complex medical challenges that require close cooperation between neurologists and psychiatrists. These findings may have implications for the organization and further development of comprehensive epilepsy care.