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Ambler class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in Canadian hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180913
Source
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Apr;48(4):1204-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Michael R Mulvey
Elizabeth Bryce
David Boyd
Marianna Ofner-Agostini
Sara Christianson
Andrew E Simor
Shirley Paton
Author Affiliation
Nosocomial Infections, National Microbiology Laboratory, Health Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba. michael_mulvey@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Apr;48(4):1204-14
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Canada - epidemiology
Chromosome Mapping
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Escherichia coli - drug effects - enzymology
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Klebsiella - drug effects - enzymology
Klebsiella Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Molecular Sequence Data
Phenotype
Plasmids - genetics
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Transformation, Bacterial - genetics
beta-Lactamases - biosynthesis - genetics
Abstract
This report describes a study carried out to gain baseline information on the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in Canada. A total of 29,323 E. coli and 5,156 Klebsiella sp. isolates were screened at 12 participating sites. Of these, 505 clinically significant, nonrepeat isolates displaying reduced susceptibility to the NCCLS-recommended beta-lactams were submitted to a central laboratory over a 1-year period ending on 30 September 2000. A total of 116 isolates were confirmed to be ESBL producers. PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of TEM-11 (n = 1), TEM-12 (n = 1), TEM-29 (n = 1), TEM-52 (n = 4), CTX-M-13 (n = 1), CTX-M-14 (n = 15), CTX-M-15 (n = 11), SHV-2 (n = 2), SHV-2a (n = 12), SHV-5 (n = 6), SHV-12 (n = 45), and SHV-30 (n = 2). Five novel beta-lactamases were identified and designated TEM-115 (n = 2), TEM-120 (n = 1), SHV-40 (n = 2), SHV-41 (n = 4), and SHV-42 (n = 1). In addition, no molecular mechanism was identified for five isolates displaying an ESBL phenotype. Macrorestriction analysis of all ESBL isolates was conducted, as was restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of plasmids harboring ESBLs. Although a "clonal" distribution of isolates was observed at some individual sites, there was very little evidence suggesting intrahospital spread. In addition, examples of identical or closely related plasmids that were identified at geographically distinct sites across Canada are given. However, there was considerable diversity with respect to plasmid types observed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
15047521 View in PubMed
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Application of whole genome sequence analysis to the study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Nunavut, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285893
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0185656
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Andrea D Tyler
Elaine Randell
Maureen Baikie
Kym Antonation
Debra Janella
Sara Christianson
Gregory J Tyrrell
Morag Graham
Gary Van Domselaar
Meenu K Sharma
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0185656
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Canada has one of the lowest rates of tuberculosis (TB) in the world, however, among certain sub-populations, disease incidence rates approach those observed in sub-Saharan Africa, and other high incidence regions. In this study, we applied mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) to the analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from Northern communities in the territory of Nunavut. WGS was carried out using the Illumina MiSeq, with identified variants used to infer phylogenetic relationships and annotated to infer functional implications. Additionally, the sequencing data from these isolates were augmented with publically available WGS to evaluate data from the Nunavut outbreak in the broader Canadian context. In this study, isolates could be classified into four major clusters by MIRU-VNTR analysis. These could be further resolved into sub-clusters using WGS. No evidence for antimicrobial resistance, either genetic or phenotypic, was observed in this cohort. Among most subjects with multiple samples, reactivation/incomplete treatment likely contributed to recurrence. However, isolates from two subjects appeared more likely to have occurred via reinfection, based on the large number of genomic single nucleotide variants detected. Finally, although quite distinct from previously reported Canadian MTB strains, isolates obtained from Nunavut clustered most closely with a cohort of samples originating in the Nunavik region of Northern Quebec. This study demonstrates the benefit of using WGS for discriminatory analysis of MTB in Canada, especially in high incidence regions. It further emphasizes the importance of focusing epidemiological intervention efforts on interrupting transmission chains of endemic TB throughout Northern communities, rather than relying on strategies applied in regions where the majority of TB cases result from importation of foreign strains.
PubMed ID
28982116 View in PubMed
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Comparative genomics of Canadian epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164196
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Jun;45(6):1904-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Sara Christianson
George R Golding
Jennifer Campbell
Michael R Mulvey
Author Affiliation
National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Jun;45(6):1904-11
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Canada - epidemiology
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Genome, Bacterial
Genomics
Humans
Methicillin Resistance
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Staphylococcus aureus - classification - drug effects - genetics
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen that has disseminated throughout Canadian hospitals and communities. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of over 9,300 MRSA isolates obtained from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program has identified 10 epidemic strain types in Canada (CMRSA1 to CMRSA10). In an attempt to determine specific genetic factors that have contributed to their high prevalence in community and/or hospital settings, the genomic content of representative isolates for each of the 10 Canadian epidemic types was compared using comparative genomic hybridizations. Comparison of the community-associated Canadian epidemic isolates (CMRSA7 and CMRSA10) with the hospital-associated Canadian epidemic isolates revealed one open reading frame (ORF) (SACOL0046) encoding a putative protein belonging to a metallo-beta-lactamase family, which was present only in the community-associated Canadian epidemic isolates. A more restricted comparison involving only the most common hospital-associated Canadian epidemic isolates (CMRSA1 and CMRSA2) with the community-associated Canadian epidemic isolates did reveal additional factors that might be contributing to their prevalence in the community and hospital settings, which included ORFs encoding potential virulence factors involved in capsular biosynthesis, serine proteases, epidermin, adhesion factors, regulatory functions, leukotoxins, and exotoxins.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17428941 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of 24 locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146225
Source
Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2010 Jan;90(1):31-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Sara Christianson
Joyce Wolfe
Pamela Orr
James Karlowsky
Paul N Levett
Greg B Horsman
Louise Thibert
Patrick Tang
Meenu K Sharma
Author Affiliation
National Microbiology Laboratory, 1015 Arlington Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada. sara_christianson@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2010 Jan;90(1):31-8
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Canada - epidemiology
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Minisatellite Repeats
Molecular Epidemiology
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - genetics - isolation & purification
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Reproducibility of Results
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - genetics
Abstract
The current gold standard for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotyping is insertion sequence (IS) 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) as it provides the highest discriminatory power of all available MTBC genotyping methods. However, RFLP is labour intensive and the interpretation of data from this method can be susceptible to errors. In 2001 a rapid, reproducible variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) based typing method using 12 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) was developed. Despite this advancement, this method lacked the discriminatory power of IS6110-RFLP. More recently a set of 24 MIRU-VNTR loci was reported to have greater discriminatory power than the original 12 locus system and may exceed that of RFLP when combined with spoligotyping. We compared the 24 locus method to the 12 locus method in order to improve surveillance of tuberculosis in Canada. A random sample of 650 MTBC isolates from British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Quebec Canada was genotyped using the 24 MIRU loci. Comparison of the data for the 12 and 24 MIRU loci showed an increase of the Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI) from 0.895 (12 loci) to 0.920 (24 loci). The implementation of the 24 locus MIRU-VNTR methods offers improvement in discriminatory power over the traditional 12 locus method. For long-term surveillance of MTBC within Canada, the use of 24 MIRU-VNTR loci will provide rapid, highly discriminatory molecular epidemiology information.
PubMed ID
20056488 View in PubMed
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Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Nunavut territory in Canada

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284362
Source
Pages 711-712 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):711-712
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Sara Christianson
Meenu K. Sharma
Maureen Baikie
Elaine Randell
Joyce Wolfe
Author Affiliation
Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Department of Health and Social Services, Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, NU, Canada
Source
Pages 711-712 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):711-712
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Abstract
Tuberculosis (rB), caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a global health problem, with more than 8.5 million cases and more than 1.2 million deaths reported in 2010 (1). While worldwide rates of TB remain high, first-world countries, including Canada, have typically experienced much lower rates than those seen in third world countries. Despite this fact, in 2010, the Canadian territory of Nunavut saw rates of TB more than 65 times the Canadian national average and double their previous year's rate, with approximately 304 cases per 100,000 population (2). Molecular genotyping, such as Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping, is an invaluable tool in the public health approach to investigating and curtailing TB outbreaks (3). In this study, we aimed to get a more accurate picture of the current state of TB in Nunavut by comparing MIRU-VNTR genotyping patterns with the regions where the patients sought medical attention.
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