We examined the association between adulthood emotionality-activity-sociability temperament scale and preclinical atherosclerosis and, whether this association is mediated by cardiovascular risk factors (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body-mass index (BMI)). The participants were a nationally representative sample of 537 men and 811 women from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study aged 15-30 years at the baseline in 1992 and aged 24-39 years at the follow-up in 2001. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by ultrasound scans of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In men, there was an association between the temperament dimension activity and IMT (ß = 0.08, p = 0.036) which was partially mediated by BMI (ß decreased from 0.08 to 0.05; p-value of Sobel test = 0.002). However, after correction for multiple comparisons the association between IMT and the temperament dimension activity in men was only of borderline significance. In women, there were no associations between temperament and IMT or FMD. These results suggest that a highly active temperament may contribute to early signs of atherosclerosis in men and that body mass may mediate this association.
We investigated the associations of anger and cynicism with carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether these associations were moderated by childhood or adulthood socioeconomic status (SES). The participants were 647 men and 893 women derived from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Childhood SES was measured in 1980 when the participants were aged 3-18. In 2001, adulthood SES, anger, cynicism, and IMT were measured. There were no associations between anger or cynicism and IMT in the entire population, but anger was associated with thicker IMT in participants who had experienced low SES in childhood. This association persisted after adjustment for a host of cardiovascular risk factors. It is concluded that the ill health-effects of psychological factors such as anger may be more pronounced in individuals who have been exposed to adverse socioeconomic circumstances early in life.
To examine the association between work stress and cognitive performance.
Cognitive performance of a total of 99 women (mean age = 47.3 years) working in hospital wards at either the top or bottom quartiles of job strain was assessed using validated tests that measured learning, short-term memory, and speed of memory retrieval.
The high job strain group (n = 43) had lower performance than the low job strain group (n = 56) in learning (P = 0.025), short-term memory (P = 0.027), and speed of memory retrieval (P = 0.003). After controlling for education level, only the difference in speed of memory retrieval remained statistically significant (P = 0.010).
The association found between job strain and speed of memory retrieval might be one important factor explaining the effect of stress on work performance.
We explored the relationship of job strain with working hours, shift-dependent perceived workload, sleepiness and recovery. Nurses/nursing assistants (n = 95) were recruited from wards that belonged to either the top (high-strain group, HJS) or the bottom (low-strain group, LJS) job strain quartiles of a Job Content Questionnaire survey of employees in five health care districts and four cities in Finland. Three-week field measurements during naturally occurring shift schedules and a subset of pre-selected shift arrangements consisted of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, perceived workload and recovery. The HJS group (n = 42) had more single days off and quick returns than the LJS group (n = 53, p
Evidence on apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene as a vulnerability factor for depression is mixed. Polymorphisms of the APOE gene regulatory region may serve as additional explanatory factors, as they help in explaining variation of depressive symptoms within the APOE epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype groups. In this study, the associations of the APOE gene promoter polymorphisms -219G/T and +113G/C and their haplotypes with depressive symptoms were examined.
The data is from a subpopulation of 660 young adults (24-39 years old) of the ongoing population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory. Clinical screening assessed lipid levels and other known physiological and behavioral risk factors for depressive symptoms.
The APOE epsilon4 allele was not related to depressive symptoms. Similarly, no statistically significant associations were found between the APOE gene promoter -219G/T and +113G/C polymorphisms and depressive symptoms. Within theAPOE epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype subgroup (n = 373), carriers of both -219G/+113C and -219T/+113G haplotypes (GC/TG) had higher depressive symptoms compared to noncarriers of these haplotypes (2.52 vs. 1.98; p = 0.002). This relationship persisted after separate adjustments for various risk factors including sex, age, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and alcohol consumption.
Our results suggest that the APOE gene does not predispose carriers to depressive symptoms among healthy young adults. However, the promoter haplotype GC/TG may elevate the risk of depressive symptoms.
The present study examined the association of cardiac autonomic task-induced reactivity and recovery to preclinical atherosclerosis. Thirty-three men and 33 women aged 24-39 years participated in the ongoing epidemiological Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. The authors measured heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) during the mental arithmetic and speech tasks in 1999. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by measuring the thickness of the common carotid artery intima-media complex (IMT) with ultrasound in 2001. Higher HR, RSA, and PEP reactivity were associated with lower IMT values even after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors (lipid levels, obesity, and blood pressure). In addition, better HR recovery after the mental arithmetic task was associated with lower IMT values, and this association persisted after all adjustments. Thus, higher task-induced cardiac autonomic reactivity and better HR recovery were related to less preclinical atherosclerosis. The authors concluded that cardiac pattern of reactivity and quick recovery may be associated with better cardiovascular health, and therefore all reactivity occurring in challenging situations should not automatically be considered as potentially pathological.
Novelty seeking temperament has been associated with higher coronary heart disease risk factors, but the mechanism behind the association is open. Cardiac stress response is a potential candidate.
Cardiac stress reactivity and recovery was studied in 29 healthy subjects (aged 22-37 years) scoring extremely high (n = 16) or extremely low (n = 13) on temperamental dimension of novelty seeking.
Heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and pre-ejection period were measured during challenging tasks. Differences in cardiac reactivity and recovery between the novelty seeking groups were examined with repeated-measures and univariate analyses.
The main finding was that stress reactivity did not differ between high and low novelty seeking groups, but high novelty seekers tended to show faster recovery, which is likely to be parasympathetically mediated.
The findings suggest that high novelty seekers may be more stress resilient because they might have faster cardiac recovery after stress. Cardiac stress reactivity seems not to be among the explaining factors for the association between novelty seeking and coronary heart disease risk factors.
We investigated whether childhood temperament was able to predict carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and/or its risk factors in adulthood 21 years later.
The subjects were the three youngest age cohorts of the population-based sample of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, i.e., those who were aged 3 to 9 years (n = 708) at the baseline. IMT was assessed by ultrasound, and temperament in terms of negative emotionality, hyperactivity, and sociability (following Buss and Plomin). In addition, the levels of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis were measured in both childhood and adulthood.
Childhood temperament was found to predict adulthood risk factors such as smoking in both genders and body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and educational level in women. In women, childhood hyperactivity predicted adulthood IMT after adjustment for childhood and adulthood risk factors for atherosclerosis.
These findings suggest that temperament may contribute to the development of IMT in two ways: indirectly through risk factors in both genders and in women directly through a mechanism that is not considered in the present study. There were no significant gender-related differences in temperament, but it seemed to play different roles in different genders. Hyperactivity was a greater risk for girls than for boys.
Tolerance to shift work varies; only some shift workers suffer from disturbed sleep, fatigue, and job-related exhaustion. Our aim was to explore molecular genetic risk factors for intolerance to shift work.
We assessed intolerance to shift work with job-related exhaustion symptoms in shift workers using the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Illumina's Human610-Quad BeadChip (n = 176). The most significant findings were further studied in three groups of Finnish shift workers (n = 577). We assessed methylation in blood cells with the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip, and examined gene expression levels in the publicly available eGWAS Mayo data.
The second strongest signal identified in the GWAS (p = 2.3 Ã? 10E-6) was replicated in two of the replication studies with p
Depression and coronary heart disease are often comorbid conditions, but the mechanism behind this link is largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a high level of depressive symptoms in healthy young adults would be related to more prevalent preclinical atherosclerosis.
We studied the association between depressive symptoms and carotid atherosclerosis in 1126 young adults (410 men and 716 women) as part of the ongoing population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The participants responded to a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory in 1992, 1997, and 2001. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by measuring the thickness of the common carotid artery intima-media complex with ultrasound in 2001. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured in childhood/adolescence (1980) and in adulthood (2001).
In men, high scorers of depressive symptoms in 2001 had higher carotid artery intima-media thickness (0.63 mm) compared with those with low or moderate scores on depressive symptoms (0.57 mm). This relationship (B = 0.08, F[1, 405] = 9.24, p = .003) persisted after adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and adulthood. Depression scores in 1992 and 1997 were not predictive of intima-media thickness. In women, no association was found between depressive symptoms and intima-media thickness.
Depressive symptoms during early adulthood seem to be associated with higher levels of carotid intima-media thickness in men, but not in women.