The association between apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], fibrinogen, fibrinopeptide A (FPA) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was analyzed in Eastern Finnish men aged 50 to 60 years. Apo(a) correlated directly with carotid bifurcation (r = 0.26, p = 0.001), but not with common carotid IMT. Men in the lowest quartile of apo(a) had thinner (p = 0.013) IMT in bifurcation [1.59 mm (95% CI 1.49; 1.68)] compared to the men in the highest [1.91 mm (95% CI 1.73; 2.09)] apo(a) quartile. The difference remained (p = 0.038) after adjusting for confounders. Plasma fibrinogen was not related to carotid IMT, whereas FPA correlated with common carotid (r = 0.21, p = 0.016) and carotid bifurcation (r = 0.21, p = 0.018) IMT. These associations abolished after adjusting for the confounders. The data suggest that apo(a) associate with carotid atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors for ischemic cardiovascular diseases.
High body iron stores have been proposed as a risk factor for advanced atherosclerosis. We investigated the prevalence of early atherosclerotic changes, and their relation to conventional CHD risk factors and body iron status. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 206 men aged 50 to 60 years (6% random population sample). Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery was evaluated with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Statistical analyses were performed separately for men with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among all the study participants, 6.6% had IMT > 1.3 mm in the common carotid artery, whereas 53.8% had IMT > 1.5 mm in the carotid bifurcation. Respective values were 4.8% and 46.8% for those without CVD, and 8.5% and 62.2% for those with CVD. Mean IMT in the carotid bifurcation, the predilection site for atherosclerosis, was 1.85 mm (95% CI 1.72; 1.98) in the men with CVD, as compared to 1.65 mm (95% CI 1.56; 1.73) in the men free of CVD. Serum LDL cholesterol (beta = 0.26), saturated fat intake (beta = 0.20), blood haemoglobin (beta = -0.29), systolic blood pressure (beta = 0.21) and smoking (beta = 0.19), jointly explained 23% of the variance in the carotid bifurcation IMT in the men without CVD. Neither serum ferritin, transferrin nor dietary iron levels were associated with carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. On the other hand, in the men with CVD, age (beta = 0.34) and physical activity (beta = -0.25) jointly explained 16.5% of the IMT variance in the carotid bifurcation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether coeliac disease affects growth, glycaemic control, and general well-being of children and adolescents with type I diabetes. Eighteen subjects were found to have coeliac disease by a screening program. Gastrointestinal symptoms, changes in growth and the levels of glycated haemoglobin (GHbA1) were analysed, as well as subjective well-being before and after diagnosis of coeliac disease. Overt gastrointestinal symptoms and deterioration of growth prior to disclosure of coeliac disease were seen only in one patient who had both of these conditions. Retrospectively, most subjects reported mild gastrointestinal complaints, which resolved on a gluten-free diet. Introduction of a gluten-free diet did not have any positive effect on glycaemic control, but was associated with an increase in weight-for-height (from 4.3+/-18.1 to 8.2+/-15.4% deviation from population median, p = 0.02). This increase in weight-for-height was inversely correlated with changes in GHbA1 (r = -0.574, p = 0.02).
Coeliac disease is rarely associated with signs of malabsorption in children and adolescents with type I diabetes. Introduction of a gluten-free diet may be associated with excess weight gain. We recommend intensified follow-up for these subjects.
In order to define priorities for improvement of the occupational health service (OHS) in one primary health care unit, employees' satisfaction was evaluated with a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire covered items on service reservation, personal health education received, quality of the OHS, and use of the OHS within six months by the employees. This evaluation was one step of the quality system that was planned in accordance with the ISO 9004-2 standard for continuous quality improvement of OHS. The study population was all of 1,050 employees working for five employers; 546 (52%) employees responded to the inquiry. However, only 377 of them had made use of the OHS within the last six months before the inquiry. The mean age of the responders was 42 years (SD = 9 years) and 76% of the respondents were men. The percentages of employees with a high degree of satisfaction with the quality of the OHS and personal health education in the OHS were 76% and 69%, respectively. However, concerning the quality of the OHS, the proportion of highly satisfied employees was 27% higher (95% CI = 19-35%) among those who had used OHS within six months compared to the others. Furthermore, when the oldest (> 48 years) and the youngest (
The associations of serum lipoproteins and habitual diet to factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) were analysed in 119 middle-aged men. FVIIc was measured by one-stage clotting assay, cholesterol and triglycerides enzymatically, serum apolipoproteins (apo) immunoturbidimetrically and habitual diet using four-day food records. ApoB, cholesterol, triglycerides, apoA-II, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat correlated directly to FVIIc (p 38 E%), in the middle tertile FVIIc increased gradually from low to high fat intake, whereas in the highest apoB tertile FVIIc was not related to dietary fat (p = 0.038 for age-adjusted interaction). The present data demonstrate a direct relation between apoB and FVIIc in middle-aged men. Low fat diet seem to associate to decreased FVIIc especially in subjects in the lower end of the apoB distribution.
Epidemiological studies have revealed that stressful changes in social environment increase the risk of cardiovascular mortality. In this study, the influence of major negative and positive life changes on serum cholesterol was examined in middle-aged men to determine a possible biochemical link between life changes and cardiovascular mortality. The results showed no influence of negative life changes on serum cholesterols. However, positive life changes significantly predicted a reduction in total and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels after adjustment for the baseline cardiovascular health status, baseline cholesterol level, diet, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and cardiorespiratory fitness. The odds ratio for lowering LDL cholesterol was 5.2 in the men reporting positive events compared with those reporting none. The findings suggest a predictive value of positive life changes for atherogenic lipid profile in middle-aged men.
In a 30-year follow-up survey of the Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study in 1989, 470 men aged 70-89 years were examined in two rural areas of Finland, in the East and in the West. Life-style-related coronary heart disease risk factors were at high levels in both groups, but the difference between areas found in the same cohort in middle age had mostly disappeared or partially reversed. Mean levels of systolic/diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, blood glucose after 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, and plasma fibrinogen were higher in the West than in the East (p
The relationship between lipid peroxidation (plasma malondialdehyde [MDA] concentration) and plasma fibrinogen level was analyzed in 144 men, aged 53-62 years. MDA was measured colorimetrically and fibrinogen with the thrombin method. Mean plasma MDA concentration was 12.6 (SD 1.2) micromol/L, plasma fibrinogen level 2.91 (0.47) g/L, and body mass index 27.1 (3.5) kg/m(2). Prevalence of smoking was 17%. MDA correlated moderately with fibrinogen. Both MDA and fibrinogen correlated positively with waist hip ratio (WHR) and blood leukocyte count, but inversely with VO(2)max. Both MDA and fibrinogen levels were higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p
Consistent findings about the inverse association of social network level with coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity suggest the importance of investigating biological pathways of association. Differences in plasma fibrinogen level were investigated among middle-aged men with weak and strong structural and functional social network ties. Men with low scores in the adequacy of social participation variable (structural) had higher mean values of plasma fibrinogen than those with high scores. The difference remained after adjustment for age, smoking and cardiovascular health status and after possible modifying factors were taken into account, but did not remain significant after allowing for physical fitness. Men with high scores in overall support (functional) had higher plasma fibrinogen levels compared to the men with low scores. This difference persisted after age and cardiovascular health status were taken into account but was explained by smoking. The data suggest that smoking and cardiorespiratory fitness are important mediating or modifying factors between structural and functional aspects of social network ties and plasma fibrinogen.
We analyzed plasma fibrinogen level in relation to genetic polymorphisms in the alpha- and beta-fibrinogen gene loci. Furthermore, the association of other CVD risk markers with fibrinogen was studied twice, with a time interval of one year in 50 to 60 year old men (n = 183). DNA polymorphisms were detected by PCR and digestion with Taq I (alpha-fibrinogen), Hind III and Bcl I (beta-fibrinogen) restriction enzymes. The correlation coefficient between fibrinogen measurements was 0.48 (p