The purpose of this study was to quantify and identify the airborne contamination in eastern Canadian sawmills. Seventeen sawmills were chosen to cover a wide range of size, geographic distribution, and wood species processed. Within each sawmill different work sites (debarking, sawing, sorting, or planing) were studied separately. Area sampling was performed for exposure assessment. Microbial contaminants were assessed with all-glass impingers 30 and six-stage Andersen microbial samplers; appropriate selective media and culture conditions for bacteria, thermophilic actinomycetes, molds, and yeasts were used. Inhalable dust, endotoxins, temperature, and humidity also were measured. Penicillium species were the most predominant molds with up to 40 different Penicillium species identified. Debarking was the working site most highly contaminated by molds, bacteria, and endotoxins (p=0.0001). At this working site mold levels reached a maximum of 1.5 x 10(6) CFU/m3, whereas the median values for culturable bacteria and endotoxin were 21,620 CFU/m3 and 1,081 endotoxin units/m3, respectively. Planing sites were the most highly dust contaminated (median: 3.0 mg/m3) (p
Open-ended interviews were conducted with 109 individuals. These included: administrators, staff, dental personnel, residents, and family members, associated with 12 long-term-care (LTC) facilities to contrast different human resource and organizational strategies for managing the delivery of oral health care to the elderly residents. A multiple case-study analysis revealed that no particular organizational strategy was ideal, although three important components--oral hygiene, diagnostic assessments, and dental treatment--were common to all. The dental personnel everywhere believed that oral health in the midst of other conflicting priorities received inadequate attention, while the administrators and staff acknowledged that they were weak at recognizing oral disorders and assisting with oral hygiene. In all, the interviews offered a portrait of the conflicting priorities associated with LTC, and they provide practical insights to successful strategies of care in this population.
The following is a description of the findings of a longitudinal exploratory and descriptive research study of 22 persons nominated as expert self-managers of Type 1 diabetes. It entailed an initial interview about previous experiences with self-management, self-recorded taped diaries about self-management decisions for 1 week each, and face-to-face interviews following each weeklong recording of self-management decisions. The study generated a grounded theory about the development of expertise in diabetes self-management. The development of expertise was found to occur as transition through two or more phases, to be individualized, and to involve a complex interplay between social, contextual and personal factors, including the individual's developmental age. The research fIndings challenge the traditional understanding of rebellion in self-management as a manifestation of adolescence, behaviors other than active control as testimony to ineptitude in self-management, metabolic control as the indicator of self-management ability, and the role of others as collaborators in self-management.
Recent attempts to explore marine microbial diversity and the global marine microbiome have indicated a large proportion of previously unknown diversity. However, sequencing alone does not tell the whole story, as it relies heavily upon information that is already contained within sequence databases. In addition, microorganisms have been shown to present small-to-large scale biogeographical patterns worldwide, potentially making regional combinations of selection pressures unique. Here, we focus on the extremophile community in the boundary region located between the Polar Front and the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Southern Ocean, to explore the potential of metagenomic approaches as a tool for bioprospecting in the search for novel functional activity based on targeted sampling efforts. We assessed the microbial composition and diversity from a region north of the current limit for winter sea ice, north of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Front (SACCF) but south of the Polar Front. Although, most of the more frequently encountered sequences were derived from common marine microorganisms, within these dominant groups, we found a proportion of genes related to secondary metabolism of potential interest in bioprospecting. Extremophiles were rare by comparison but belonged to a range of genera. Hence, they represented interesting targets from which to identify rare or novel functions. Ultimately, future shifts in environmental conditions favoring more cosmopolitan groups could have an unpredictable effect on microbial diversity and function in the Southern Ocean, perhaps excluding the rarer extremophiles.
The ability of the Antarctic microarthropod Cryptopygus antarcticus (Collembola, Isotomidae) to survive low temperatures has been well studied at the physiological level, with recent investigations indicating the importance of the moulting process in conferring this ability. This study investigated gene expression in groups of C. antarcticus that have distinct differences in their ability to survive low temperatures. A microarray containing c. 5400 C. antarcticus expressed sequence tags was used to investigate gene expression differences between groups of animals with different supercooling points (SCP), and to low temperatures close to their SCP. By demonstrating the involvement of moult-related genes in the differential survival of two groups of C. antarcticus with distinct SCP profiles, the results of this investigation add support to the suggestion that moulting plays a role in conferring cold tolerance in C. antarcticus.
Despite an ideal of international awareness, nursing education and professional organization have traditionally fostered social analysis within a rather local sphere of influence. However, there have always been renegade nurses whose idealism and global perspective have made them challenge the profession, adopt unusual career paths, or even leave nursing in favor of roles that more readily adapt to global awareness. Because the health care of the future demands an increasingly global-policy perspective, it is important to explore the relationship between the social structure of professional nursing and its ideological imperatives. This research employed ethnographic methods to study the experience of nurses involved in balancing what they perceived to be the discrepant perspectives of nursing and global awareness. The findings depict remarkable and inspiring careers within nursing and document the difficulties encountered by nurses in their attempts to apply global awareness to their professional nursing lives. Further, they generate practical implications for nursing education and professional organization to respond to the global trend toward primary health care policy and to prepare nurses to meet the inevitable challenges of the next millennium.
Endotoxins are microbiological agents which ubiquitously exist in an indoor environment, and are believed to be causal agents for a number of diseases. This study investigated the indoor levels and determinants of endotoxins and their impact on asthma and allergy diseases among Swedish pre-school children. House dust samples from 390 homes of 198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy control children were collected in the Dampness Building and Health (DBH) study. House dust endotoxin levels in the child's bedroom and living rooms ranged from 479-188,000 EU/g dust and from 138-942,000 EU/g dust, respectively. Pet-keeping and agricultural activities were significantly associated with the higher endotoxin concentration levels in indoor dust. Endotoxins in theindoor environment did not associate to asthma and allergy diseases in the children. However, we found an association between endotoxins and the presence of disease symptoms in the sub-group of families without indoor pets.
At the University of British Columbia (UBC) School of Nursing, a model building challenge in the early 1970s launched 2 decades of model development and application projects. In this paper, selected creative applications will illustrate the utility of a nursing model beyond its explicit direction for clinical practice decision-making. The UBC Model for Nursing had been applied as a basis for curriculum development and teaching strategies in a baccalaureate programme as well as a foundation for nursing administrative decisions in a variety of clinical agencies.