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Accumulation of cadmium, zinc, and copper in maternal blood and developmental placental tissue: differences between Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198281
Source
Environ Res. 2000 May;83(1):54-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
M. Kantola
R. Purkunen
P. Kröger
A. Tooming
J. Juravskaja
M. Pasanen
S. Saarikoski
T. Vartiainen
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, University of Kuopio, Finland. marjatta.kantola@uku.fi
Source
Environ Res. 2000 May;83(1):54-66
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase - metabolism
Birth Weight - drug effects
Cadmium - analysis - blood
Copper - analysis - blood
Drug Interactions
Estonia
Female
Finland
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Placenta - chemistry - enzymology
Pregnancy - blood
Pregnancy Trimester, First - blood
Regression Analysis
Russia
Smoking - blood - metabolism
Zinc - analysis - blood
Abstract
Cadmium, zinc, and copper from placental tissue and blood samples at the first trimester (n = 64) and at term (n = 152) were analyzed; the welfare of newborns and placental 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities in vitro were determined. The study material was collected from Finland, Estonia, and Russia. The results demonstrate that Cd starts to accumulate in the placenta during the first trimester and that Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher at the first trimester than at term. Among nonsmokers a negative correlation was found between placental Cu content and birth weight of neonates. Among smokers a positive correlation between placental Zn content and birth weight and ECOD activity was found. The birth weights correlated inversely with the length of time the mothers smoked. The highest Cd concentrations were detected in the samples collected from St. Petersburg. The data demonstrate an inverse accumulation of Zn and Cd throughout the pregnancy in the placenta and maternal blood samples. Zn may act as a positive marker or even an enzymatic enhancement for the human placental vital functions. Smoking, parity, age, and especially the place of residence affect the Cd, Zn, and Cu contents and ratios in placenta and mother's blood.
PubMed ID
10845782 View in PubMed
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Biochemical bone markers and bone mineral density during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy with and without vitamin D3: a prospective, controlled, randomized study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207869
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Aug;82(8):2476-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1997
Author
A M Heikkinen
M. Parviainen
L. Niskanen
M. Komulainen
M T Tuppurainen
H. Kröger
S. Saarikoski
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Kuopio, Finland. anna-mari.heikkinen@pp.inet.fi
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Aug;82(8):2476-82
Date
Aug-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkaline Phosphatase - blood
Biological Markers
Bone Density
Cholecalciferol - therapeutic use
Collagen - blood
Collagen Type I
Cyproterone Acetate - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Estradiol - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - therapeutic use
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Female
Finland
Humans
Middle Aged
Osteocalcin - blood
Peptides - blood
Placebos
Postmenopause
Prospective Studies
Abstract
The effects of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and vitamin D on the serum concentrations of three bone biochemical markers and their associations with bone mineral density (BMD) were studied in a population-based 1-yr follow-up study. A total of 72 healthy postmenopausal women were randomized into 4 treatment groups: HRT group (sequential combination of 2 mg estradiol valerate and 1 mg cyproterone acetate), D group (vitamin D3, 300 IU/day), HRT+D group (both of the above), and placebo group (calcium lactate, 500 mg/day). Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured as biochemical markers of bone formation, and serum type I collagen carboxy-terminal telopeptide was measured as a marker of bone resorption at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. To investigate the associations of these markers with BMD, lumbar (L2-L4) and femoral neck BMDs were determined by dual x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 2.5 yr of treatment. In both hormone groups, the serum concentrations of the three bone metabolic markers had decreased after 12 months. Those of OC decreased by 29.2% (P = 0.017) in the HRT group and by 37.3% (P = 0.004) in the HRT+D group, and BAP concentrations decreased by 34.4% (P
PubMed ID
9253321 View in PubMed
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Birth weight and sex of children and the correlation to the body burden of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs of the mother.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206644
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Feb;106(2):61-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998
Author
T. Vartiainen
J J Jaakkola
S. Saarikoski
J. Tuomisto
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Health, National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Feb;106(2):61-6
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Benzofurans - adverse effects - analysis
Birth Weight - drug effects
Body Burden
Diet
Education
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - adverse effects - analysis
Pregnancy
Rural Population
Seafood
Sex ratio
Socioeconomic Factors
Soil Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - adverse effects - analogs & derivatives - analysis
Urban Population
Abstract
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in 167 random human milk samples from urban and rural areas in Finland. Dietary habits and background information on each mother and child were gathered by questionnaire. Body mass indexes (BMI) before pregnancy and delivery in the rural area were 5-10% higher than in the urban area, but fat content of mother's milk was about 10% higher in the urban area. The mean weights of children (+/- standard deviation) were similar in the rural and urban areas among primiparae, 3,500 +/- 597 g and 3,505 +/- 454 g, respectively, although dioxin international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs) were significantly higher in the urban area. The mother's level of education did not affect the weight of the child, but concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs (I-TEQ, 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5 dibenzofuran,1,2, 3,7,8-Cl5 dibenzodioxin) and PCBs [sum of PCBs (sumPCB), PCB-TEQ, and most PCB congeners] increased with advanced education. This is considered to be due to differences in the mother's consumption of fish. The birth weight, especially of boys, slightly decreased with increasing concentrations of I-TEQ, 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5 dibenzofuran, 1,2,3, 7,8-Cl5 dibenzodioxin, and 2,3,7,8-Cl4 dibenzodioxin; however, when the analysis was restricted to primiparae, there was no statistically significant correlation between birth weight and the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs. No correlation was found between the weight of the child and PCBs, PCB-TEQs, or individual PCB congeners in the whole material or among primiparae, or among boys or girls. The concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs inhuman milk were modeled for primiparae by weighing fish consumption, age of mother, milk fat content, and BMI before pregnancy. The linear regression resulted in values of R = 0.67 and 0.30 for the modeled dioxin I-TEQs in the urban and rural areas, respectively, and the corresponding values for sumPCBs of R = 0.60 and 0.11. The increase of PCDD/PCDF body burden was calculated to be on average 0.58 pg I-TEQ/g milk fat/year in the urban area and 0.39 pg I-TEQ/g milk fat/year in the rural area.
Notes
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Cites: Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1995 Feb;21(1):136-507784626
Cites: Crit Rev Toxicol. 1995;25(2):133-637612174
Cites: Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1996 May-Jun;18(3):217-27; discussion 229-768725628
Cites: Crit Rev Toxicol. 1996 Nov;26(6):709-378958469
Cites: Chemosphere. 1997 Jun;34(12):2571-839204541
PubMed ID
9432971 View in PubMed
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Bone mineral density and risk factors for osteoporosis--a population-based study of 1600 perimenopausal women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217889
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 1994 Jul;55(1):1-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1994
Author
H. Kröger
M. Tuppurainen
R. Honkanen
E. Alhava
S. Saarikoski
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 1994 Jul;55(1):1-7
Date
Jul-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Analysis of Variance
Bone Density - physiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Femur Neck - physiology
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Menopause - physiology
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal - epidemiology - pathology
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Spine - physiology
Abstract
Population-based epidemiological studies on osteoporosis are few. Our study evaluated the effects of menopause and certain putative behavioural risk factors on bone mineral density (BMD). Spinal and femoral neck BMD were measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from 1600 perimenopausal women aged 48-59 years (mean 53.2 years) with no diseases or medications known to affect bone metabolism. These women were a selected sample of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study population (n = 14,220). There was a wide variation of BMD among perimenopausal women. Menopause had a major effect on BMD. Postmenopausal women had significantly lower BMD in both spine (-6.2%) and femoral neck (-3.9%) as compared with premenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that weight, menopausal status, age, and grip strength were significant independent predictors of both spinal and femoral BMD. Additionally, physical activity was found to be a significant predictor of femoral BMD, and alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of spinal BMD. However, current anthropometric and lifestyle factors explained only 18.7-25.4% of the variability of BMD. Therefore, the estimation of the risk factor status at menopause is not an adequate substitute for bone densitometry. However, our results may in part help clinicians to identify the risk groups at which to direct bone density measurements.
PubMed ID
7922782 View in PubMed
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Changes in body weight and onset of hypertension in perimenopausal women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183123
Source
J Hum Hypertens. 2003 Nov;17(11):775-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2003
Author
M. Juntunen
L. Niskanen
J. Saarelainen
M. Tuppurainen
S. Saarikoski
R. Honkanen
Author Affiliation
Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Finland.
Source
J Hum Hypertens. 2003 Nov;17(11):775-9
Date
Nov-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Body mass index
Climacteric
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - etiology
Incidence
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Time Factors
Weight Gain
Abstract
We assessed the determinants of onset of hypertension in a large, prospective population-based study of perimenopausal women from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) study. The data collection started in 1989, when a baseline postal inquiry was sent to all women aged 47-56 years (n=14 220) residing in the Kuopio Province in Eastern Finland. Names, social security numbers and addresses were obtained from the Population Register Centre of Finland. A total of 11 798 women responded at baseline and at 5-year follow-up in 1994. After the exclusion of 1777 women with prevalent hypertension at baseline and women with missing height or weight information, the study population consisted of 9485 without established hypertension at baseline. New cases of established hypertension during the follow-up (n=908) were ascertained with the Registry of Specially Refunded Drugs of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution (SII). According to the National Health Insurance, the SII granted 90% reimbursement for drug costs in defined chronic illnesses necessitating continuous medication, like arterial hypertension. Weight and weight gain both raised the risk by 5% per kg (P
PubMed ID
14578917 View in PubMed
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Detection of cytochrome P450 gene expression in human placenta in first trimester of pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64457
Source
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Jul 26;52(2):379-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-26-1996
Author
J. Hakkola
H. Raunio
R. Purkunen
O. Pelkonen
S. Saarikoski
T. Cresteil
M. Pasanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Jul 26;52(2):379-83
Date
Jul-26-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Base Sequence
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - biosynthesis - genetics
Female
Gene Expression
Humans
Isoenzymes - biosynthesis - genetics
Microsomes - enzymology
Molecular Sequence Data
Placenta - enzymology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, First
RNA, Messenger - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Human first-trimester placentas were screened for the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. mRNAs of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP4B1 were identified by reverse transcriptase-polymearse chain reaction (RT-PCR) in at least some of the six placental samples studied. CYP2A and CYP2B message were absent in all samples. The level of all of these CYP mRNAs was lower compared to the corresponding levels in liver or lung. the catalytic activity marker (7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase) was inducible in the placentas by maternal cigarette smoking. Thus, the regulatory system of placental CYP1A1, mediated by the Ah-receptor, appears to be developed as early as the first trimester of pregnancy. Three immunoreactive bands from placental microsomes were detected by an antihuman CYP3A4 antibody, but no functional activity of CYP3A enzymes could be detected. These results show that placental tissue during the first trimester of pregnancy has the potential of expressing several CYP genes, and forms a basis for subsequent analysis of these forms at the protein and functional level.
PubMed ID
8694864 View in PubMed
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Early pregnancy loss and exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222205
Source
Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(3):229-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
J. Juutilainen
P. Matilainen
S. Saarikoski
E. Läärä
S. Suonio
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(3):229-36
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Electromagnetic fields - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Housing
Humans
Pregnancy
Time Factors
Abstract
The possibility of an association of early pregnancy loss (EPL) with residential exposure to ELF magnetic fields was investigated in a case-control study. Eighty-nine cases and 102 controls were obtained from the data of an earlier study aimed at investigating the occurrence of EPL in a group of women attempting to get pregnant. Magnetic-field exposure was characterized by measurements in residences. Strong magnetic fields were measured more often in case than in control residences. In an analysis based on fields measured at the front door, a cutoff score of 0.5 A/m (0.63 microT) resulted in an odds ratio of 5.1 (95% confidence interval 1.0-25). The results should be interpreted cautiously due to the small number of highly exposed subjects and other limitations of the data.
PubMed ID
8323573 View in PubMed
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Endometrial and fetoplacental markers in pregnancies with fetal congenital nephrosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211625
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1996 Jul;75(6):526-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1996
Author
S. Heinonen
M. Ryynänen
P. Kirkinen
S. Saarikoski
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1996 Jul;75(6):526-30
Date
Jul-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amniotic Fluid - chemistry
Case-Control Studies
Chorionic Gonadotropin - blood
Chromosome Aberrations - genetics
Chromosome Disorders
Data Collection
Endometrium - chemistry
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) - analysis
Female
Finland
Genetic markers
Glycoproteins - analysis
Humans
Nephrotic Syndrome - congenital - diagnosis
Placental Lactogen - analysis
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Proteins - analysis
Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Prenatal Diagnosis
Prospective Studies
alpha-Fetoproteins - analysis
Abstract
Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type [CNF] is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to death in early childhood, if treated conservatively without early renal transplantation. Prenatal screening at midtrimester is feasible by measuring maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein [MSAFP], elevated amniotic fluid [AF] AFP being the only diagnostic test in population screening. We studied whether concentrations of other pregnancy-related markers offer any ancillary procedure for screening.
In a prospective case-control study, the concentrations of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG], unconjugated estriol [uE3], human placental lactogen [hPL] and placental protein 14 [pp14] were measured in samples from six singleton pregnancies associated with fetal CNF and from 18 matched controls at 15 weeks of gestation.
In the CNF group, mean hCG and pp 14 concentrations were slightly elevated, whereas uE3 and hPL concentrations were within the lower normal range. None of these differences were statistically significant and the distribution of these values was too wide to use them for screening.
Low unconjugated E3 and elevated hCG concentrations were expected, since newborns with CNF are growth-retarded and have large placentas. The extent of these alterations was not sufficient to identify high risk pregnancies. Substantial differences in the maternal serum concentrations of hPL and pp 14 were not observed. Hence, MSAFP screening at midtrimester is the strategy of choice for prenatal detection of CNF.
PubMed ID
8693927 View in PubMed
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Evolution of postpartum mental health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207592
Source
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 1997 Sep;18(3):213-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1997
Author
H. Viinamäki
L. Niskanen
P. Pesonen
S. Saarikoski
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
Source
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 1997 Sep;18(3):213-9
Date
Sep-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Chronic Disease
Depression, Postpartum - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Mothers - psychology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
We investigated the postpartum mental health of 139 mothers, 4-8 weeks after delivery and 2 years later. The sample consisted of mothers who attended a maternity center for a routine health check-up 1-2 months after delivery. The occurrence of mental disorders was assessed using a 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The occurrence of mental disorders (> 2 on the GHQ) was 28.1% in the initial check-up and 19.4% 2 years later. Mental health improved in 27 mothers (19%) but remained impaired (i.e. cases) in 12 (9%). Mental health was normal in 85 mothers (61%) during both examinations. Factors predicting chronicity of mental disorder on univariate analysis were poor financial situation, poor social support, problems with a partner and life events perceived as stressful during follow-up. Those with continuing mental-health problems had more psychiatric problems than the others before pregnancy. Most (92%) of these subjects had not become pregnant again. Using a logistic-regression analysis, independent factors predicting chronicity of mental-health problems were the high Zung score (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.65) and a deterioration in relationship with a partner during pregnancy (OR 29, 95% CI 1.83-460). On the other hand, a low Zung score (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.14-1.44) after delivery predicted recovery from mental disorder. A postpartum mental disorder usually resolves spontaneously. However, mental symptoms sometimes persist. The postpartum mental-health of mothers should be assessed, and treatment provided, if necessary.
PubMed ID
9304542 View in PubMed
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Expression of CYP1B1 in human adult and fetal tissues and differential inducibility of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 by Ah receptor ligands in human placenta and cultured cells.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22216
Source
Carcinogenesis. 1997 Feb;18(2):391-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1997
Author
J. Hakkola
M. Pasanen
O. Pelkonen
J. Hukkanen
S. Evisalmi
S. Anttila
A. Rane
M. Mäntylä
R. Purkunen
S. Saarikoski
M. Tooming
H. Raunio
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Carcinogenesis. 1997 Feb;18(2):391-7
Date
Feb-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator
Cells, Cultured - metabolism
Choriocarcinoma - metabolism
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - genetics - metabolism
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - genetics - metabolism
DNA-Binding Proteins
Fetus
Humans
Placenta - metabolism
Polymerase Chain Reaction
RNA, Messenger - metabolism
Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon - genetics - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Transcription Factors - genetics - metabolism
Abstract
Expression of the Ah receptor-regulated cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) gene was studied in human adult and fetal tissues and cells in culture by reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In adults, CYP1B1 mRNA was detected in liver, lymphocytes, cells of bronchoalveolar lavage samples and uterine endometrium, but not in lung. The level of expression was very low in adult liver and only three out of six fetal livers expressed CYP1B1. Extrahepatic fetal tissues, especially brains and kidneys, expressed high levels of CYP1B1. CYP1B1 mRNA was constitutively detected at a low level in first trimester and full-term placental samples. A competitive RT-PCR assay was developed to assess the regulation of CYP1B1. CYP1B1 mRNA was not induced in placenta by maternal cigarette smoking. Inducibility of CYP1B1 in cells in culture by the Ah receptor ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was studied in primary fibroblasts and chorion carcinoma cell line JEG-3 having different CYP1A1 induction properties. Inducibility of CYP1B1 was found to be regulated independently from CYP1A1. In JEG-3 cells CYP1A1 mRNA was induced up to 9000-fold, while the expression of CYP1B1 was not affected. Expression of Ah receptor and Ah receptor nuclear translocator (regulators of the CYP1 family) was determined in human placenta and in the JEG-3 cell line. Expression of these transcription factors was found neither to be co-regulated nor affected by Ah receptor ligands. This study provides evidence that in addition to the Ah receptor complex, other cell-specific factors modulate the response of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 to Ah receptor ligands.
PubMed ID
9054634 View in PubMed
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41 records – page 1 of 5.