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Alexithymia behaves as a personality trait over a 5-year period in Finnish general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168084
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2006 Aug;61(2):275-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
J K Salminen
S. Saarijärvi
T. Toikka
J. Kauhanen
E. Aärelä
Author Affiliation
Laboratory for Population Research, Department of Health and Functional Capacity, National Public Health Institute, Turku, Finland. jouko.salminen@ktl.fi
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2006 Aug;61(2):275-8
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - epidemiology - psychology
Finland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Occupations
Personality
Psychological Tests
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Temporal stability is a basic assumption underlying any personality trait construct. Previous research on the stability of alexithymia has led to a controversy over whether alexithymia should be viewed as a state-dependent phenomenon or as a stable personality trait. The aim of this 5-year longitudinal study was to examine the temporal stability of alexithymia in the general population in Finland.
Alexithymia was measured with the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) at the baseline and 5 years later.
The test-retest correlations of the TAS-20 total and factor-specific scores at the baseline and at the 5-year follow-up ranged from moderate to high in both genders, reflecting a rather high relative stability of the TAS-20 scores over a period of 5 years.
The findings of our study suggest that alexithymia behaves like a stable personality trait in the general population.
PubMed ID
16880032 View in PubMed
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Alexithymia in a normal elderly population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature212557
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 1996 Mar-Apr;37(2):144-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. Joukamaa
S. Saarijärvi
M L Muuriaisniemi
R K Salokangas
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Central Hospital, Finland.
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 1996 Mar-Apr;37(2):144-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Aged
Aging - psychology
Dementia - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Personality Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Psychometrics
Reference Values
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of alexithymia in an elderly Finnish population sample. Associations between alexithymia and sociodemographic factors were investigated, together with the relationship between alexithymia and perceived somatic health and self-reported psychic health. The study forms a part of the Turun Vanhustutkimus (TUR-VA) project, which is a longitudinal, prospective follow-up study dealing with psychosocial adaptation to retirement and to old age. The study group consisted of a population sample of 72-year-old people (N = 190). Alexithymia was measured with the 26-item version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26). The prevalence of alexithymia was 34%. Alexithymia was associated with poor perceived somatic health. Alexithymia was associated with having a psychiatric disturbance (measured by the 36-item General Health Questionnaire [GHQ-36]), but this relationship disappeared when the influence of perceived somatic health was controlled for. Alexithymia was not associated with gender, marital status, social status, or residential area.
PubMed ID
8654065 View in PubMed
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Alexithymia in psychiatric consultation-liaison patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220379
Source
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1993 Sep;15(5):330-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1993
Author
S. Saarijärvi
J K Salminen
T. Tamminen
E. Aärelä
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Central Hospital, Finland.
Source
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1993 Sep;15(5):330-3
Date
Sep-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Mood Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Patient care team
Personality Inventory
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Alexithymic characteristics were assessed by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), a self-report measure of alexithymia, in 230 consecutive outpatients referred to a psychiatric consultation-liaison service. The prevalence of alexithymia was 37.8% (50.5% in men and 28.2% in women). Alexithymia was significantly associated with the following variables: male gender, low socioeconomic status, the presence of psychiatric disorder, especially depression, with old age and with a high level of psychological distress. No significant association between alexithymia and the presence of somatic illness was found.
PubMed ID
8307347 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996 Mar;93(3):195-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1996
Author
T J Taiminen
S. Saarijärvi
H. Helenius
A. Keskinen
T. Korpilahti
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Central Hospital, Finland.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996 Mar;93(3):195-8
Date
Mar-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - psychology
Aged
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Admission
Personality Assessment
Suicide, Attempted - prevention & control - psychology
Abstract
Alexithymia seems to share some common features with psychological constriction, a phenomenon described in suicidal individuals. Fifty suicide attempters were interviewed within 24 h after arrival at a hospital, and measures of lethality of the attempt, suicidal intent, depression and alexithymia were carried out with structured instruments. Almost all the attempters were depressive, and about half of them were also alexithymic. However, alexithymia was not more prevalent in this population than in non-suicidal depressive patients. Depression and alexithymia correlated significantly with each other, but there was no correlation between alexithymia and lethality of the suicide attempt or suicidal intent. The authors conclude that alexithymia in suicide attempters seems to be associated with depression, but not with suicidality per se. Therefore, measurement of alexithymia may not yield extra information in suicide risk assessment.
PubMed ID
8739666 View in PubMed
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An evaluation of the absolute and relative stability of alexithymia over 11years in a Finnish general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285523
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2017 Apr;95:81-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2017
Author
A. Hiirola
S. Pirkola
M. Karukivi
N. Markkula
R M Bagby
M. Joukamaa
A. Jula
E. Kronholm
S. Saarijärvi
J K Salminen
J. Suvisaari
G. Taylor
A K Mattila
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2017 Apr;95:81-87
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance - methods
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
We investigated if alexithymia, a personality construct with difficulties in emotional processing, is stable in the general population.
Altogether 3083 unselected subjects aged 30 and older in Finland completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) in the longitudinal Health 2000 and Health 2011 general population surveys (BRIF8901). The stability of alexithymia at the 11-year follow-up was assessed with t-tests, correlations, and separate linear regression models with base-line and follow-up age, gender, marital status, education, and 12-month depressive and anxiety disorders as confounders.
The mean score (SD) of the TAS-20 for the whole sample was 44.2 (10.4) in 2000 and 44.2 (10.9) in 2011 (p=0.731). The mean score of the TAS-20 subscale Difficulty Identifying Feelings increased by 0.3 points, Difficulty Describing Feelings decreased by 0.6 points and Externally Oriented Thinking increased by 0.3 points. The effect sizes of the changes varied from negligible to small. Age had little effect except for the group of the oldest subjects (75-97years): the TAS-20 mean (SD) score was 49.1 (10.1) in 2000 and 53.1 (10.3) in 2011 (p
PubMed ID
28314554 View in PubMed
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Cognitive impairment and the 10-year survival probability of a normal 62-year-old population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193334
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2001 Sep;42(4):359-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2001
Author
R. Portin
M L Muuriaisniemi
M. Joukamaa
S. Saarijärvi
H. Helenius
R K Salokangas
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurology, University of Turku and Turku University Central Hospital, Finland. raija.portin@tyks.fi
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2001 Sep;42(4):359-66
Date
Sep-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aging - psychology
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - mortality
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Male
Memory, Short-Term
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Population Surveillance
Predictive value of tests
Sampling Studies
Severity of Illness Index
Survival Rate - trends
Abstract
The predictive value of cognitive impairment together with demographic and health factors on long-term survival was evaluated. The population sample comprised 389 subjects, all 62 years old. Cognitive performances were measured using verbal, visuomotor and memory tests. Cognitive impairment was determined by comparing performances with norms derived from healthy controls. Ten years after testing, the probability of survival was 89% for the cognitively preserved subjects, 80% for those with mild impairment, and 71% for those with moderate impairment (p = 0.009). Relative risk (RR) for shortened survival was 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-3.2) for the mildly, and 2.6 (95% CI 1.4-4.8) for the moderately impaired. Perceived health problems were, as expected, related to reduced survival (p
PubMed ID
11547911 View in PubMed
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Depression and disability pension in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209162
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1997 Mar;95(3):242-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
J K Salminen
S. Saarijärvi
R. Raitasalo
Author Affiliation
Social Insurance Institution, Research and Development Unit, Turku, Finland.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1997 Mar;95(3):242-3
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living - classification
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Depressive Disorder - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology
Disability Evaluation
Eligibility Determination
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Rehabilitation, Vocational - psychology
Abstract
During the period 1987-1994 there has been a threefold increase in disability pensions granted to individuals with affective disorders in Finland. Possible reasons for this development include a deep economic recession, changes in the diagnostic system, and better recognition of affective disorders. Against this background, it seems relevant to ask why, over the same period, the functional capacity of depressive patients has markedly deteriorated, causing an increase in disability pensions, despite the fact that many new drugs and other treatments have become available.
PubMed ID
9111858 View in PubMed
Less detail

Education, gender and cognitive performance in a 62-year-old normal population: results from the Turva Project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213928
Source
Psychol Med. 1995 Nov;25(6):1295-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1995
Author
R. Portin
S. Saarijärvi
M. Joukamaa
R K Salokangas
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurology, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
Psychol Med. 1995 Nov;25(6):1295-8
Date
Nov-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging
Cognition
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Rural Population
Sex Factors
Abstract
Four WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) subtests, and tasks of memory and cognitive control were administered to a population sample of 143 men and 179 women. Subjects with a minor advantage in years of education out-performed those with only primary schooling. Gender-related effects were also remarkable. Whereas the general abilities were equal in the genders, women out-performed men on recall of word pairs and objects, on verbal cognitive control and on Digit Symbol. In contrast, men excelled on Trail Making A, and on Block Design. The findings emphasize the need for age norms by gender and education for cognitive tests.
PubMed ID
8637959 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Gender differences id schizophrenia].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209627
Source
Duodecim. 1997;113(6):478-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
J. Laurila
S. Saarijärvi
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku, Finland.
Source
Duodecim. 1997;113(6):478-82
Date
1997
Language
Finnish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Age of Onset
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Sex Distribution
PubMed ID
11370068 View in PubMed
Less detail

Prevalence of alexithymia and its association with sociodemographic variables in the general population of Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202801
Source
J Psychosom Res. 1999 Jan;46(1):75-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1999
Author
J K Salminen
S. Saarijärvi
E. Aärelä
T. Toikka
J. Kauhanen
Author Affiliation
Research and Development Centre of the Social Insurance Institution, Turku, Finland. jouko.salminen@kela.memonet.fi
Source
J Psychosom Res. 1999 Jan;46(1):75-82
Date
Jan-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology
Demography
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Abstract
The prevalence of alexithymia and its association with sociodemographic variables were studied in a sample of 1285 subjects representing the general population of Finland. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Alexithymia was normally distributed in the population in both genders, confirming that it is a personality dimension. The prevalence of alexithymia was 13%. Men were alexithymic almost twice (17%) as often as women (10%). Multivariate analysis showed that alexithymia was associated with male gender, advanced age, low educational level, and low socioeconomic status. As to the three factors of the TAS-20, men scored higher in factors 2 (difficulty in describing feelings) and 3 (externally oriented thinking). but there was no gender difference in factor 1 (difficulty in identifying feelings). Comparative population studies in other countries are needed to find out whether there are any differences in the prevalence of alexithymia between cultures.
PubMed ID
10088984 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.