This article reports on the Adolescent Unresolved Attachment Questionnaire (AUAQ), a brief questionnaire that assesses the caregiving experiences of unresolved adolescents (as recipients of caregiving). The AUAQ was developed and validated in a large normative sample (n = 691) and a sample of 133 adolescents in psychiatric treatment. It is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 3 scales with Likert-type responses ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The Aloneness/Failed Protection Scale assesses the adolescent's perception of the care provided by the attachment figure. The Fear Scale taps the fear generated by the adolescent's appraisal of failed attachment figure care. The Anger/Dysregulation Scale assesses negative affective responses to the perceived lack of care from the attachment figure. All scales demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability and agreement between scores for adolescents (n = 91) from the normative sample who completed the AUAQ twice. Adolescents in the clinical sample also completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1984/1985/1996); the AUAQ demonstrated high convergent validity with the AAI.
This study examined prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms and diagnosis among a nationally representative sample of recent onset adolescent drinkers aged 12-21years (mean 17years) across different levels of drinking drawn from National Survey of Drug Use and Health (N=9490). We assessed whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and alcohol dependence was similar for individuals from different socio-demographic groups (i.e., gender, age group, ethnic group, family income, and substance use in the past year). The most prevalent DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria at low levels of alcohol use were "unsuccessful efforts to cut down", "tolerance", and "time spent" in activities necessary to obtain alcohol or recover from its effect. Logistic regression with polynomial contrasts indicated increasing rates of each criterion and an overall dependence diagnosis with increasing alcohol exposure that differed most between the lowest levels of recent drinking frequency. After controlling for drinking quantity, younger adolescents, females, Native American/Alaskans and Asian/Pacific Islanders were most likely to experience alcohol dependence symptoms and a diagnosis of dependence, suggesting that these demographic subgroups may experience dependence symptoms or develop dependence more quickly after beginning to drink. Recognizing early symptoms of alcohol dependence may assist in early identification and intervention of those at risk for heavier drinker in the future.
Lack of intimacy has been identified as an important provoking agent that increases the risk of depressive symptoms in women. This study precisely characterized lack of intimacy by assessing a woman's attachment style and investigated the specificity of association between depressive symptoms and an anxious attachment pattern.
Four hundred and twenty women participated in this cross-sectional study of depressive symptomatology and anxious attachment. All participants completed the following measures: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Reciprocal Attachment Questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale.
A score of 16 or above on the CES-D, which indicates the presence of depressive symptoms, was used to divide the sample into 2 groups: a depressed group (N = 129) and a nondepressed group (N = 291). We found that women in the depressive symptomatology group were more likely than women in the nondepressive symptomatology group to exhibit anxious attachment and adverse social and cognitive characteristics. Lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of recent stress were also predictive of depressive symptomatology. Feared loss of the attachment figure and a lack of use of the attachment figure were independent predictors of depressive symptomatology in the same model.
The feared loss of security associated with an attachment figure seems to be related to an increased likelihood of depressive symptoms.
A patient treated for infectious syphilis is cured when serologic tests become non-reactive, which may take years to achieve. Our objective is to develop a method to determine, within months, whether the patient has responded adequately to treatment. Previous research and our exploratory graphical analysis suggested that treatment response is linear when we applied logarithmic transformations of the axes. If the response to treatment is linear, titres recorded within the first few months of treatment will determine the slope of the line and one can develop an action line in future research. We used a non-parametric method to assess whether the logarithmic transformation improved the linearity and then we applied three different methods of testing lack of fit in linear regression. Based upon a sample size that reflects a clinically reasonable number of data points, the results of these tests provided no evidence against linearity.
To determine the effects of chinook weather conditions on probability of migraine headache onset.
Many migraineurs believe weather to be a trigger factor for their headaches; however, there is little supportive evidence in the literature. Migraineurs in the southern part of the Canadian province of Alberta frequently report that chinooks, warm westerly winds specific to the region, trigger their headaches.
Weather data from Environment Canada were used to designate each calendar day during the study period as a chinook, prechinook, or nonchinook day. Headache data were collected from 75 patient diaries from the University of Calgary Headache Research Clinic. Individual and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine if the weather conditions affected the probability of migraine onset.
The probability of migraine onset was increased on both prechinook days (odds ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and on days with chinook winds (1.19; 1.02 to 1.39) compared with nonchinook days. Analysis of chinook wind velocities revealed that for chinook days, the relative risk of migraine onset was increased only on high-wind chinook days (velocity > 38 km/h) (odds ratio 1.41; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.88). A subset of individuals was sensitive to high-wind chinook days, and another subset was only sensitive to prechinook days. Only two patients were sensitive to both weather conditions, and the majority of patients was not sensitive to either. Neither weather condition had a protective effect. Increasing age was associated with high-wind chinook sensitivity (p = 0.009) but not prechinook sensitivity (p = 0.389).
Both prechinook and high-wind chinook days increase the probability of migraine onset in a subset of migraineurs. Because few subjects were found to be sensitive to both weather types, the mechanisms for these weather effects may be independent. This is supported by the presence of an age interaction for high-wind chinook days but not for prechinooks day.
Comment In: Neurology. 2000 Jan 25;54(2):280-110668682
Dual-chamber pacing is a promising treatment for patients with very frequent vasovagal syncope, but its cost utility is unknown. We report that the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained is $13,159 Canadian dollars (about $8,600 US dollars), and therefore this pacemaker therapy for vasovagal syncope has a favorable cost-utility ratio.
Our objective was to determine if Chinook weather conditions in the Calgary area increase the probability of headache attacks in migraine sufferers. Environment Canada meteorologic summaries for January through June 1992 were analyzed and times of Chinook wind onset identified. Chinook weather conditions were defined as calendar days when Chinook winds were present and the calendar day immediately preceding Chinook wind onset. The diaries of 13 migraine patients were analyzed, and times of headache onset classified according to the existing weather conditions. The probability of migraine headache onset was greater on days with Chinook weather (17.26%) than on non-Chinook days (14.65%) (P = 0.042). Older patients appeared more weather sensitive than younger patients. For patients over age 50, the probability of migraine occurrence on Chinook weather days was much greater than on non-Chinook days (P = 0.007). Chinook weather conditions increase the probability of migraine headache occurrence. Older migraine sufferers appear particularly vulnerable to this effect.
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) is a recently identified homologue of the tissue specific coactivator PGC-1alpha, a coactivator of transcription factors such as the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors and nuclear respiratory factors. PGC-1alpha is involved in adipogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid beta oxidation, and hepatic gluconeogenesis.
We studied variation in the coding region of human PPARGC1B in Danish whites and related these variations to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in population based samples.
Twenty nucleotide variants were identified. In a study of 525 glucose tolerant subjects, the Ala203Pro and Val279Ile variants were in almost complete linkage disequilibrium (R2 = 0.958). In a case-control study of obesity involving a total of 7790 subjects, the 203Pro allele was significantly less frequent among obese participants (p = 0.004; minor allele frequencies: normal weight subjects 8.1% (95% confidence interval: 7.5 to 8.8), overweight subjects 7.6% (7.0 to 8.3), obese subjects 6.5% (5.6 to 7.3)). In a case-control study involving 1433 patients with type 2 diabetes and 4935 glucose tolerant control subjects, none of the examined variants were associated with type 2 diabetes.
Variation of PGC-1beta may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity, with a widespread Ala203 allele being a risk factor for the development of this common disorder.
To identify specific risk factors for concussion severity among ice hockey players wearing full face shields compared with half face shields (visors).
A prospective cohort study was conducted during one varsity hockey season (1997-1998) with 642 male ice hockey players (median age 22 years) from 22 teams participating in the Canadian Inter-University Athletics Union. Half of the teams wore full face shields, and half wore half shields (visors) for every practice and game throughout the season. Team therapists and doctors recorded on structured forms daily injury, participation, and information on face shield use for each athlete. The main outcome measure was any traumatic brain injury requiring assessment or treatment by a team therapist or doctor, categorised by time lost from subsequent participation and compared by type of face shield worn.
Players who wore half face shields missed significantly more practices and games per concussion (2.4 times) than players who wore full face shields (4.07 sessions (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.48 to 4.74) v 1.71 sessions (95% CI 1.32 to 2.18) respectively). Significantly more playing time was lost by players wearing half shields during practices and games, and did not depend on whether the athletes were forwards or defence, rookies or veterans, or whether the concussions were new or recurrent. In addition, players who wore half face shields and no mouthguards at the time of concussion missed significantly more playing time (5.57 sessions per concussion; 95% CI 4.40 to 6.95) than players who wore half shields and mouthguards (2.76 sessions per concussion; 95% CI 2.14 to 3.55). Players who wore full face shields and mouthguards at the time of concussion lost no playing time compared with 1.80 sessions lost per concussion (95% CI 1.38 to 2.34) for players wearing full face shields and no mouthguards.
The use of a full face shield compared with half face shield by intercollegiate ice hockey players significantly reduced the playing time lost because of concussion, suggesting that concussion severity may be reduced by the use of a full face shield.
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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose-induced insulin response among NGT individuals. METHODS: We investigated the impact of the class III allele on Type 2 diabetes susceptibility in a case-control study involving 1462 Type 2 diabetic patients and 4931 NGT subjects. We also examined the potential impact of the class III allele in genotype-quantitative trait studies in three Danish study populations containing (i) 358 young healthy subjects; (ii) 4444 middle-aged NGT subjects, 490 subjects with IFG and 678 subjects with IGT; and (iii) 221 NGT subjects, of whom one parent had Type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: There was no difference in frequency of the class III allele or in genotype distribution between the 1462 Type 2 diabetic patients and the 4931 NGT subjects. Among the 358 young subjects the class III/III carriers had significantly reduced post-IVGTT acute serum insulin and C-peptide responses (p=0.04 and 0.03 respectively). However, among the 4444 middle-aged subjects we failed to demonstrate any association between the class III allele and post-OGTT serum insulin and C-peptide levels. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The class III allele of the INS-VNTR does not confer susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes or consistent alterations in glucose-induced insulin release in the examined populations, which consisted of Danish Caucasians.