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Genomics in a changing Arctic: Critical questions await the molecular ecologist.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261139
Source
Mol Ecol. 2015 Mar 21;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-21-2015
Author
Stan D Wullschleger
Amy L Breen
Colleen M Iversen
Matthew S Olson
Torgny Näsholm
Ulrika Ganeteg
Matthew D Wallenstein
David J Weston
Source
Mol Ecol. 2015 Mar 21;
Date
Mar-21-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Molecular ecology is poised to tackle a host of interesting questions in the coming years. The Arctic provides a unique and rapidly changing environment with a suite of emerging research needs that can be addressed through genetics and genomics. Here we highlight recent research on boreal and tundra ecosystems, and put forth a series of questions related to plant and microbial responses to climate change that can benefit from technologies and analytical approaches contained within the molecular ecologist's toolbox. These questions include understanding (1) the mechanisms of plant acquisition and uptake of N in cold soils, (2) how these processes are mediated by root traits, (3) the role played by the plant-microbiome in cycling C and nutrients within high-latitude ecosystems, and (4) plant adaptation to extreme Arctic climates. We highlight how contributions can be made in these areas through studies that target model and non-model organisms, and emphasize that the sequencing of the Populus and Salix genomes provides a valuable resource for scientific discoveries related to the plant microbiome and plant adaptation in the Arctic. Moreover, there exists an exciting role to play in model development, including incorporating genetic and evolutionary knowledge into ecosystem and Earth System Models. In this regard, the molecular ecologist provides a valuable perspective on plant genetics as a driver for community biodiversity, and how ecological and evolutionary forces govern community dynamics in a rapidly changing climate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
25809088 View in PubMed
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[New rules and demands for sick-listing. The companies are obliged to offer rehabilitation to their employees].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218376
Source
Lakartidningen. 1994 Apr 6;91(14):1403-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-6-1994
Author
A. Englund
S. Olson
Author Affiliation
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Solna.
Source
Lakartidningen. 1994 Apr 6;91(14):1403-5
Date
Apr-6-1994
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Insurance, Health - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Occupational Diseases - economics - rehabilitation
Occupational Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence
Sweden
PubMed ID
8189868 View in PubMed
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Population genetics of freeze tolerance among natural populations of Populus balsamifera across the growing season.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272302
Source
New Phytol. 2015 Aug;207(3):710-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Mitra Menon
William J Barnes
Matthew S Olson
Source
New Phytol. 2015 Aug;207(3):710-22
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological - genetics
Alaska
Analysis of Variance
Freezing
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Genes, Plant
Genetic Variation
Genetics, Population
Geography
Introns - genetics
Molecular Sequence Data
Nucleotides - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Populus - genetics - growth & development
RNA, Messenger - genetics - metabolism
Seasons
Abstract
Protection against freeze damage during the growing season influences the northern range limits of plants. Freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance are the two major freeze resistance strategies. Winter survival strategies have been extensively studied in perennials, but few have addressed them and their genetic basis during the growing season. We examined intraspecific phenotypic variation in freeze resistance of Populus balsamifera across latitude and the growing season. To investigate the molecular basis of this variation, we surveyed nucleotide diversity and examined patterns of gene expression in the poplar C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene family. Foliar freeze tolerance exhibited latitudinal and seasonal variation indicative of natural genotypic variation. CBF6 showed signatures of recent selective sweep. Of the 46 SNPs surveyed across the six CBF homologs, only CBF2_619 exhibited latitudinal differences consistent with increased freeze tolerance in the north. All six CBF genes were cold inducible, but showed varying patterns of expression across the growing season. Some Poplar CBF homologs exhibited patterns consistent with historical selection and clinal variation in freeze tolerance documented here. However, the CBF genes accounted for only a small amount of the variation, indicating that other genes in this and other molecular pathways likely play significant roles in nature.
PubMed ID
25809016 View in PubMed
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Use of geographic and genotyping tools to characterise tuberculosis transmission in Montreal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163420
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007 Jun;11(6):632-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
I. Haase
S. Olson
M A Behr
I. Wanyeki
L. Thibert
A. Scott
A. Zwerling
N. Ross
P. Brassard
D. Menzies
K. Schwartzman
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007 Jun;11(6):632-8
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cluster analysis
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Genotype
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - genetics - isolation & purification
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Quebec - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - genetics - microbiology - transmission
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
In Canada, tuberculosis (TB) is increasingly an urban health problem. Montreal is Canada's second-largest city and the second most frequent destination for new immigrants and refugees.
To detect spatial aggregation of cases, areas of excess incidence and local 'hot spots' of transmission in Montreal.
We used residential addresses to geocode active TB cases reported on the Island of Montreal in 1996-2000. After a hot spot analysis suggested two areas of overconcentration, we conducted a spatial scan, with census tracts (population 2500-8000) as the primary unit of analysis and stratification by birthplace. We linked these analyses with genotyping of all available Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, using IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping.
We identified four areas of excess incidence among the foreign-born (incidence rate ratios 1.3-4.1, relative to the entire Island) and one such area among the Canadian-born (incidence rate ratio 2.3). There was partial overlap with the two hot spots. Genotyping indicated ongoing transmission among the foreign-born within the largest high-incidence zone. While this zone overlapped the area of high incidence among Canadian-born, genotyping largely excluded transmission between the two groups.
In a city with low overall incidence, spatial and molecular analyses highlighted ongoing local transmission.
PubMed ID
17519094 View in PubMed
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