The problem studied concerns how patients and physicians talk about and make use of information regarding patient life style in the daily practice of primary health care. The study has been carried out at two primary health care centers in central Sweden. Transcribed dialogues between 42 patients and 12 physicians have been used as a data corpus. The analyses concern the interactional patterns in the dialogues between patient and physician, how the interlocutors address life style and for what purposes. The results show a similarity between patients and physicians with respect to the extent to which they use the discourse space. However, salient differences were found in the following way: the physicians not only introduced and closed life style topics more frequently than the patients did, they also used what is referred to as an agenda driven strategy to introduce them. The patients, on the other hand, used an interactively anchored strategy. The patients, by taking the reference in the life world and by making use of the life style topics, present and articulate their identity. The physicians subsume life style issues under a medical framing of the patients' problem and they mainly address life style in order to construe a proto-typical patient rather than an individual.
In a prospective study, the age- and gender-specific incidence and features of clavicular fractures were studied during 1989 and 1990. The population at risk consisted of about 200,000 individuals aged 15 or above in the county of Uppsala, Sweden. There were 187 clavicular fractures in 185 patients corresponding to an annual incidence of 50/100,000 (males 71/100,000, women 30/100,000). Males were significantly younger and sustained comminuted fractures more often than women. The fracture incidence decreased with age in both genders, although the reduction was significant only in men. Bicycle accidents most frequently caused clavicular fractures in both genders, whereas sports activities were significantly more common in men. Right and left clavicles were almost as frequently fractured, and a direct fall on the shoulder was the most frequent mechanism of injury for both genders. There was no difference between genders in the anatomical location with about three of four fractures occurring through the middle part and one of four through the acromial part of the clavicle. Ninety-five percent healed uneventfully, while non-union developed in 5% - evenly distributed between the middle part of the clavicle and the acromial part.
We studied the epidemiological features of tibial shaft fractures during two 5-year periods, 1971-75 and 1986-90, in the county of Uppsala, Sweden. The incidence was higher in men than in women during both periods. In men aged 10-19 years, the fracture incidence was lower during the second period, with a reduction of fractures sustained in road traffic accidents. In women above 80 years, the fracture incidence was higher during the second period.
Ethnic minority status and childhood trauma are established risk factors for psychotic disorders. Both are found to be associated with increased level of positive symptoms, in particular auditory hallucinations. Our main aim was to investigate the experience and effect of childhood trauma in patients with psychosis from ethnic minorities, hypothesizing that they would report more childhood trauma than the majority and that this would be associated with more current and lifetime hallucinations.
In this cross-sectional study we included 454 patients with a SCID-I DSM-IV diagnosis of non-affective or affective psychotic disorder. Current hallucinations were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (P3; Hallucinatory Behaviour). Lifetime hallucinations were assessed with the SCID-I items: auditory hallucinations, voices commenting and two or more voices conversing. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, self-report version.
Patients from ethnic minority groups (n = 69) reported significantly more childhood trauma, specifically physical abuse/neglect, and sexual abuse. They had significantly more current hallucinatory behaviour and lifetime symptoms of hearing two or more voices conversing. Regression analyses revealed that the presence of childhood trauma mediated the association between ethnic minorities and hallucinations.
More childhood trauma in ethnic minorities with psychosis may partially explain findings of more positive symptoms, especially hallucinations, in this group. The association between childhood trauma and these first-rank symptoms may in part explain this group's higher risk of being diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis. The findings show the importance of childhood trauma in symptom development in psychosis.
Measures of social class, if related to different class concepts, should differ in external consistency. External consistency depends on the character of the dependent variable. Two measures of social class are here used for independent variables, the socio-economic classification, the official index of Sweden, and a structural class concept. For dependent variables, ICD diagnose chapters, directly and in a simple grouping, are used on a material from health insurance authorities. Class inequality is measured both as to size and direction, by Gini-index and rank-order correlation, respectively. Separate analyses are made for the whole material, men and women, and doctor certified absence days. Results show clear differences between the class measures for diagnoses more closely associated to work conditions, while the measures coincide in other cases.
In 1958-74 altogether 64 cases of bacteriologically verified infections of Listeria monocytogenes were diagnosed in Sweden in children, aged more than 27 days, and in adults. Immunosuppression predisposed to the disease. Thus, many patients had co-existing disorders, such as leukemia and alcoholism. Sixteen patients had been treated with corticosteroids, which were combined with cytostatic drugs in nine. Meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in 52 patients and was fatal in 16. The clinical symptoms did not differ from those in purulent meningitis caused by other bacteria. In the cerebrospinal fluid the cellular response was dominated by polymorphonuclear cells in 29 patients and by mononuclear cells in 20. Ten patients had septicemia, which was fatal in four. Clinical symptoms were dominated by chills, high fever and general prostration. One patient had pleurisy and one an abscess of the neck; both recovered. Serotypes 1 and 4b prevailed and were equally common. Many patients developed raised antibody titers in both the O-agglutination test and the complement fixation test. The titers were often not positive until after a month. Moderate granulocytosis was the rule and monocytosis was rarely seen. Ampicillin alone or combined with an aminoglycoside seemed to be the drug of choice in the treatment of listeriosis. An alternative drug was tetracycline. Most deaths occurred within six days of onset of the illness. Early diagnosis and treatment were imperative. Most patients recovered and serious sequelae were rare.