In this article the didactic perspectives of nurse instructors (NIs) is examined with the help of andragogy defined by the concepts of self-directed learning, learning as a process and lifelong learning. The results of a pilot study of ongoing research on the educational perspective of NIs, are used as examples to discuss how far NIs have accepted the features of andragogy as their didactic perspective both in their public stance and in their actions as described by NIs themselves.
The nursing and educational perspectives of nurse instructors (NIs) were compared. Three nursing perspectives (professional, vocational and technical) and two educational perspectives (inner teaching and outer teaching) were measured by quantitative methods. The evaluation of the perspectives was carried out by a questionnaire (sent to 268 NIs, of whom 72% responded) with both closed-ended and open-ended questions. Factor analysis produced the following factors: 1) a technical nursing perspective and an outer teaching perspective (unqualified NIs and older NIs had a more technical nursing perspective and a more marked outer teaching perspective); 2) a professional nursing perspective; and 3) an inner teaching perspective. It was shown by discriminant analysis that NIs displaying features (2) and (3) were qualified NIs.
Factors associated with students' orientations to nursing This paper presents the results of a study focusing on the factors associated with orientations to nursing. Students' orientations to nursing have not as yet been a focus of nursing research. In some other professions, however, professional orientation has been associated with learning motivation and study performance, and has been seen as a predictor of work satisfaction. In this study, students' orientations to nursing were defined in terms of caring, nursing expertise and life orientation. The hypothesis of whether students' pre-educational experiences of nursing, gender, choice of nursing specialty, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing were associated with different orientations was tested. The extent to which students were orientated to caring, nursing expertise and their own life was also examined. The orientation to nursing measurement tool, which has been developed on the basis of a qualitative study, was used to collect the data. Nurse teachers collected the data from nursing students (n=184) who were studying in three different nursing programmes in Finland. Non-parametric assessments (Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test) of the differences between the students' orientations were carried out. A majority of the students were highly life-orientated, and two-thirds had average nursing expertise or caring orientation scores. The results supported the study hypothesis of an association between students' orientations and their gender, choice of nursing speciality, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing. However, the hypothesis of an association between students' pre-educational nursing experiences and orientation to nursing was not supported. The contradictions between students' orientation to nursing and the philosophy of nursing underlying the study programme may be a source of motivational problems and dissatisfaction with nursing education. Therefore, nurse educators are challenged to discuss curriculum matters and student supervision in order to promote flexibility in planning personal study programmes.
1. Arsonists have more psychiatric symptoms, such as self-destructive behavior and alcohol dependency, than other criminal offenders. 2. Arsonists are found to have poor social competence with low social status and a high unemployment rate. 3. The act of arson could be like an attempted suicide, a cry for help.
This qualitative study aims to describe the helping methods used by psychiatric nurses in a hospital environment from as evidenced by video observations and nurses' and patients' descriptions. The data, which were collected by videotaping different nursing situations and by interviewing the nurses and patients afterwards, consisted of 520 pages of written text. A total of 569 utterances were extracted from the text to describe the helping methods used in psychiatric nursing. Each utterance constituted a classification unit. Deductive content analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. The results obtained from the nurses' and patients' descriptions and the videotaped episodes showed that the most commonly used helping methods were of the confirmatory kind (50%), while educational methods came second (37%) and catalytic methods third (13%).
In this study the nursing and educational perspectives of Nurse instructors (NIs) were compared by using a theoretical framework, in which three kinds of nursing perspectives (professional, vocational and technical) and two kinds of educational perspectives (inner teaching and outer teaching) have been measured by quantitative and qualitative methods. The evaluation of perspectives were carried out by a questionnaire (sent to 268 nurse instructors of which 72% responded) with closed and open questions. The nursing or educational perspectives of NIs have no inner consistency. A NI had for example inner teaching values and knowledge, but her teaching methods, however, had features of outer teaching according to her own examples in teaching nursing. Factor analysis produced the following factors: 1) Technical nursing and outer teaching; 2) Professional nursing; and 3) Inner teaching. Unqualified NIs and older NIs revealed more features of technical nursing and outer teaching than other teachers. The qualified NIs revealed more features of professional nursing and inner teaching.
The purpose of this article is to describe patients' experiences of being helped during a period of psychiatric hospital care. Psychosis has traditionally been defined in medical and psychological terminology. The focus of psychiatric nursing is the human experience of distress associated with mental illness. The aim of psychiatric care is to promote healing and coping in daily life through support, validation and understanding. The main aim is to re-empower the patient with psychosis by using psychiatric care. The purposive sample consisted of interviews with nine voluntary patients recovering from psychosis. The interviewees told about their experiences of care. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Patients experienced care as helpful but unstructured: care facilitated their situation by alleviating the disorders, but it had not been defined by nurses, and the patients made their own conclusions about what care should be like. The care did not reach the inner world of the patients with psychosis. From the patients' point of view, care should protect them from vulnerability and empower/restructure their selves for coping in daily life.
The aim of this report was to describe patients' experiences of psychosis in an inpatient setting. Mental illness, as a result of psychosis, has traditionally been defined from the viewpoint of clinical experts. Psychiatric nursing, as an interactive human activity, is more concerned with the development of the person than with the origins or causes of their present distress. Therefore, psychiatric nursing is based on eliciting personal experiences and assisting the person to reclaim her/his inner wisdom and power. The design of the study, in the report discussed below, was phenomenological. In 1998, nine patients were interviewed regarding their experiences of psychosis in an acute inpatient setting. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. The participants experienced psychosis as an uncontrollable sense of self, which included feelings of change and a loss of control over one's self with emotional distress and physical pain. The participants described the vulnerability they had felt whilst having difficult and strange psychological feelings. The informants experienced both themselves and others sensitively, considered their family and friends important and meaningful, and found it difficult to manage their daily lives. Furthermore, the informants experienced the onset of illness as situational, the progress of illness as holistic and exhaustive, and the admission into treatment as difficult, but inevitable.
The views of Swedish nursing instructors of the concept of nursing are examined. The approach is an inductive one based on grounded theory, which is derived from phenomenology and sociological field research methods. The data were collected by selective sampling and by interviewing 14 teachers in two nursing schools (one small and one large) in Sweden. The analysis shows that the core of nursing can be described as helping the patients either to manage their daily living or to die with dignity, and it consists of three stages which continually interact. Three types of nursing emerged inside this process of help. The relationships between (1) the nurse and different kinds of the art of nursing, (2) the nurse and various kinds of assumptions concerning the patient, and (3) the nurse and different kinds of co-operation with other health care personnel groups define the different types of process of help. The theory of nursing practice generated here is one that can be employed to test nurse orientation in many contexts.