OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between parity and urinary incontinence, including subtypes and severity of incontinence, in an unselected sample, with special emphasis on age as a confounder or effect modifier. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study (response rate 80%) with 27,900 participating women. Data on parity and urinary leakage, type, frequency, amount, and impact of incontinence were recorded by means of a questionnaire. A validated severity index was used. Relative risks (RR) with nulliparous women as reference were used as an effect measure. RESULTS: Incontinence was reported by 25% of participants. Prevalences among nulliparous women ranged from 8% to 32%, increasing with age. Parity was associated with incontinence, and the first delivery was the most significant. The association was strongest in the age group 20-34 years with RR 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 2.6) for primiparous women and 3.3 (2.4, 4.4) for grand multiparous women. A weaker association was found in the age group 35-64 years (RRs between 1.4 and 2.0), whereas no association was found among women over 65 years. For stress incontinence in the age group 20-34 years, the RR was 2.7 (2.0, 3.5) for primiparous women and 4.0 (2.5, 6.4) for grand multiparous women. There was an association with parity also for mixed incontinence, but not for urge incontinence. Severity was not clinically significantly associated with parity. CONCLUSION: Parity is an important risk factor for female urinary incontinence in fertile and peri- and early postmenopausal ages. Only stress and mixed types of incontinence are associated with parity. All effects of parity seem to disappear in older age.
Screening for haemoglobin (Hb) and s-ferritin, in 176 of all 189 (93%) pupils at 8th grade (14-15-years-old) in one Norwegian community was performed in order to map the prevalence of anaemia and depleted iron stores. In order to determine the clinical significance of the findings, a questionnaire aimed at detecting symptoms or risk factors for iron deficiency was completed by all participants, and a 3 mo therapeutic trial with iron was offered to subjects with s-ferritin values below 15 microg/l. Four percent of girls and 8% of boys were anaemic according to WHO cut-off levels. S-ferritin
The aim was to assess the prevalence of any urinary leakage in an unselected female population in Norway, and to estimate the prevalence of significant incontinence.
The EPINCONT Study is part of a large survey (HUNT 2) performed in a county in Norway during 1995-97. Everyone aged 20 years or more was invited. 27,936 (80%) of 34,755 community-dwelling women answered a questionnaire. A validated severity index was used to assess severity.
Twenty-five percent of the participating women had urinary leakage. Nearly 7% had significant incontinence, defined as moderate or severe incontinence that was experienced as bothersome. The prevalence of incontinence increased with increasing age. Half of the incontinence was of stress type, 11% had urge and 36% mixed incontinence.
Urinary leakage is highly prevalent. Seven percent have significant incontinence and should be regarded as potential patients.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of an information-package (direct mailing) concerning oestrogen therapy, deriving from a consensus conference in 1990, on general practitioners' (GPs') attitudes and knowledge. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Controlled randomised study. Two groups of Norwegian GPs. The Intervention group received an information-package consisting of the recommendations from the consensus conference, some headline questions with answers, and a classification of the oestrogens available in Norway, including a table and a graphical presentation of the costs of the different treatments. GPs stated their views on prescribing oestrogen on a five step scale, related to nine short case histories, each containing cues on complaints, smoking, family history suggesting risk for cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GPs' views on prescribing oestrogen, relation to age, sex, practice type (solo/group) and practice location. RESULTS: The differences in answer distributions between the Intervention (n = 193) and Control (n = 181) groups did not reach statistical significance for any of the nine case histories. The answers indicate a more liberal attitude towards replacement therapy in 1992 compared to a study performed in 1990. The views on contraindications was fundamentally unaltered. CONCLUSION: The study did not reveal any significant effect of direct mailing as means of disseminating consensus conference recommendations to GPs.
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has become the preferred term used to classify the urinary symptoms of elderly men. This term places more emphasis on clinical appearance rather than being restricted to the functional pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to investigate this new concept in a group of patients who had been tentatively diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The range of urinary symptoms, incontinence, sexual function and impact on daily living were registered.
Data from a group of 480 men awaiting urologic assessment were collected by questionnaire shortly after referral from their general practitioner between 1997 and 2000. The questionnaires used were the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the Symptom Problem Index, the International Continence Society-BPH, the Sandvik Incontinence Severity Index and the BPH-specific Interference with Activities.
The mean age of the subjects was 67.0 years. As assessed by the IPSS, 15%, 54% and 31% of the men had mild, moderate and severe symptoms, respectively. Men who gave positive answers to questions regarding the frequency, amount and type of leakage were considered to have urinary incontinence (UI), which was found in 37% of cases. The majority of men had mild or moderate UI. Influence on daily living varied with the severity of symptoms. However, no significant differences in influence on daily living were found between groups with different degrees of severity of incontinence as all groups reported a relatively high impact.
Our results show that UI is fairly common, very bothersome and socially embarrassing in male LUTS patients waiting for urologic evaluation. Although UI is not typically associated with BPH and is not regarded as a crucial component of LUTS, this study indicates that more emphasis should be placed on UI in the terminology of LUTS. UI may also act as an indicator of a need for healthcare.
Six case histories concerning female urinary incontinence were mailed to 191 randomly selected general practitioners (GPs) in Norway, of whom 139 (73%) replied. Great variations in suggested investigations and treatment were found between individual doctors. Four explanatory variables were examined: doctors' sex, years since graduation, urban/rural location, and GP specialization. GP specialists treated fewer patients adequately than non-specialists. Experienced female doctors instructed more patients in pelvic floor exercises, prescribed more oestrogens, referred more patients, and also indicated the possibility of surgery more frequently than their colleagues. Nevertheless, patient management is largely independent of a doctor's sex and age, practice location, and GP specialization.
The aim of the study was to explore the use of incontinence pads among community-dwelling women in a well-defined area of western Norway (total female population 122,516). In Norway incontinence aids are prescribed by doctors and paid for by the national insurance. Data were collected at local insurance offices and through interviews with an age-stratified (20-89 years) random sample of incontinent women. Identified were 2,991 pad users (1-year period prevalence 2.4%). Prevalence rose sharply with advancing age, reaching a maximum of 30.1% in the 90+ age group. Median number of pads used per day was 1.8. Middle-aged women used fewer and smaller pads than the rest. When compared with the number of pads actually delivered, the incontinent women tended to overestimate their consumption.
To compare symptomatic outcome after antibacterial treatment in patients with acute lower urinary tract infection and the acute urethral syndrome.
A multipractice study; patients registering symptoms prospectively for 3 days by means of a diary.
General practices in western Norway.
153 adult women with acute lower urinary tract symptoms.
Patient's prospective registration of symptom distribution and duration after starting antibacterial treatment.
Fifty-one patients with acute lower urinary tract infection and 58 patients with the acute urethral syndrome were included. There were no differences in age, history of urinary tract infection, actual symptoms, or symptom duration between the groups. Symptom duration was nearly identical in the two groups among those who became asymptomatic during the 3 days of registration, ranging from 1.2 days for urgency to 1.6 days for dysuria. Almost half of the patients in each group still had some symptom left after 3 days.
Symptomatic outcome was equal after antibacterial treatment whether the patient was classified as having acute cystitis or the acute urethral syndrome. Consequently, the general practitioner may rely on symptoms alone when starting antibacterial treatment in adult women with suspected cystitis.
Norwegian studies report that a substantial amount of referrals for compulsory mental health care are disallowed at specialist assessment, at a rate that varies with referring agent. Knowledge on factors associated with disallowance could improve the practice of compulsory mental health care. This study aims to examine such factors, placing particular emphasis on the impact of referring agents.
This study utilized data from the prospective, longitudinal cohort study 'Suicidality in Psychiatric Emergency Admissions' conducted at a Norwegian psychiatric emergency unit which served approximately 400 000 inhabitants. Data on referral, admission and patient characteristics were retrieved on compulsory admissions conducted between 1 May 2005 and 30 April 2008. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses and structural multilevel modelling were performed.
Among 2813 compulsory admissions, 764 were disallowed. Low competence in the referring agent, high GAF S score, observed alcohol or drug intoxication, reported suicide risk, and the presence of neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, personality disorders and other non-specified diagnoses were associated with above average disallowance frequency. Non-Norwegian ethnicity and schizophrenia spectrum disorders were associated with below average disallowance rates.
Among several factors associated with disallowance, low symptom load was the strongest, whilst referring agent competence modestly affected disallowance rate.
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The objective was to study explanatory factors for help-seeking among incontinent women, and what was the outcome of the treatment. A questionnaire was mailed to all 2366 women aged 20 or over in the rural community of Rissa, Norway. Women confirming incontinence gave information about duration, precipitating factors, frequency, amount of leakage, and impact. Questions about doctor consultation or planned consultation, treatment and results were included. Women with incontinence which had resolved without treatment were also recorded. A total of 77% answered the questionnaire. Twenty per cent of women with incontinence (n = 535) had consulted a doctor, 18% had planned to consult. Increasing age and duration, and urge/mixed type of incontinence were determinative factors for doctor consultation, while increasing severity and impact were determinative for planned consultation. Drugs, exercises, pads, and electrostimulation were all important treatment options: 21% were cured, 40% much better after treatment. Of all the women, 8% reported that they had been incontinent in the past, and only 18% of these had consulted a doctor.