To see, if voluntary admission for treatment in first-episode psychosis results in better adherence to treatment and more favourable outcome than involuntary admission.
We compared consecutively first-admitted, hospitalised patients from a voluntary (n = 91) with an involuntary (n = 126) group as to psychopathology and functioning using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scales at baseline, after 3 months and at 2 year follow-up. Moreover, duration of supportive psychotherapy, medication and number of hospitalisations during the 2 years were measured.
More women than men were admitted involuntarily. Voluntary patients had less psychopathology and better functioning than involuntary patients at baseline. No significant difference as to duration of psychotherapy and medication between groups was found. No significant difference was found as to psychopathology and functioning between voluntarily and involuntarily admitted patients at follow-up.
Legal admission status per se did not seem to influence treatment adherence and outcome.
BACKGROUND: A recent observational study suggested that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors protects against cancer in general and against breast and female reproductive tract cancers in particular. To explore these hypotheses, the authors examined cancer risk among users of ACE inhibitors in North Jutland County, Denmark. METHODS: Using data from the population-based Prescription Database of North Jutland County and the Danish Cancer Registry, cancer incidence among 17,897 individuals prescribed ACE inhibitors was compared with expected incidence based on county specific cancer rates during an 8-year study period with a mean follow-up of 3.7 years. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for cancers overall and at selected sites. In addition, the authors performed a direct comparison of users of ACE inhibitors with users of beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers (n = 47,579 individuals) by means of a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Overall, 909 cancer cases were observed among users of ACE inhibitors, with 846 expected based on general population rates, yielding an SIR of 1.07 (95% CI, 1.01-1.15). No risk reductions were observed for cancers of the breast and female reproductive tract, whereas nonsignificantly decreased SIRs were observed for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and liver. Cancer of the kidney was found in significant excess (SIR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2). Stratification by duration of follow-up or number of prescriptions revealed no apparent trends, except for a tendency toward decreasing risk with increasing length of follow-up for smoking-related cancers. The direct comparison of users of ACE inhibitors with users of beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers yielded results comparable to those derived from the comparison with the general population, with a hazard ratio for cancer overall of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.93-1.09). CONCLUSIONS: This large, population-based cohort study did not confirm a protective effect of ACE inhibitors on the development of cancer. The excess of kidney cancer observed likely reflects a correlation between hypertension and kidney cancer. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of ACE inhibitors beyond the observation period of this and previous studies. Also, the suggestive evidence of decreased risks for upper digestive system cancers and for smoking-related cancers over time may warrant additional investigation.
Earlier research suggests that use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but not tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), reduces the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).
We conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate the association between antidepressant use and CRC risk. Cases were diagnosed with a first primary CRC from 1991 through 2008. We selected 10 population controls matched to cases on sex, birth year, and residence from the Danish Civil Registration System using risk-set sampling. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associating antidepressant use with colorectal cancer occurrence, controlling for potential confounders.
The study included 9,979 cases and 99,790 controls. We found no notable reduction in CRC risk in ever users (=2 prescriptions) of TCAs (OR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.05), SSRIs (OR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.05), or other antidepressants (OR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.07). Associations for recent and former use of antidepressants were also near null. Intensity of antidepressant use (number of pills divided by total duration of use), regardless of duration, was not associated with CRC risk.
We found no evidence that antidepressant use substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer.
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The study aimed to determine rates and types of patient restraint, and their relationship to age, gender and immigrant background. The study retrospectively examined routinely collected data and data from restraint protocols in a department of acute psychiatry over a 2-year period. Each patient is only counted once in this period, controlling for readmission. Of 960 admitted patients, 14% were exposed to the use of restraints. The rate was significantly higher among patients with immigrant background, especially in the younger age groups. Most commonly used were mechanical restraint alone for native-born patients and a combination of mechanical and pharmacological restraints for patients with immigrant background. The use of restraints decreased when patients reached 60 years. Both patients' age and immigrant background seem to have an impact on the use of restraint.
Among 14,088 patients, with a primary diagnosis of Parkinson's disease during the period 1977-98 identified from the National Register of Patients, 1282 cancers were subsequently recorded in the Danish Cancer Registry, compared with 1464 expected, with a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-0.9). Significantly reduced risks were found for smoking-related cancers, for example, cancers of the lung (SIR, 0.38), larynx (0.47) and urinary bladder (0.52), although moderate reductions in risk were also seen for several nonsmoking-related cancers. In contrast, increased risks were seen for malignant melanoma (SIR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6), nonmelanocytic skin cancer (1.25; 1.1-1.4) and breast cancer (1.24; 1.0-1.5). The observed cancer pattern supports the hypothesis that constituents of tobacco smoke inhibit or delay the development of Parkinson's disease, but a low smoking prevalence appears to be only part of the explanation for the decreased cancer incidence. The increased relative risks of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer are not likely to be artefactual, but further investigations of potential mechanisms are warranted.
To determine if the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) has satisfactory psychometric properties in patients with severe mental disorders and if their scores differ from those of patients with severe medical disorders. To investigate if the scores are related to medication adherence.
Two hundred and eighty psychiatric patients completed the BMQ and reported how much of their medication they had taken the past week. Serum concentrations of medications were analyzed. BMQ scores were compared with those of patients with chronic medical disorders.
Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for all subscales. The psychiatric group scored lower on the necessity of taking medication than the medical group. Non-adherent patients felt medication to be less necessary and were more concerned about it than adherent patients. The necessity subscale predicted adherence fairly well.
The BMQ has satisfactory psychometric properties for use in patients with severe mental disorders. The constructs measured by the BMQ are related to adherence in these patients.
Although millions of women worldwide have received breast implants for cosmetic or medical reasons, possible late effects (in particular cancer) have not been well studied. To provide quantitative information on cancer occurrence among women undergoing breast implant surgery, 1,135 women treated for cosmetic reasons in Denmark were evaluated. Patients were identified using the nationwide Hospital Discharge Registry with linkage to the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry to determine subsequent cancer incidence. The average age of the women at implant surgery was 31 years, and the average follow-up was 8.4 years, up to a maximum of 17 years. Overall, 27 cancers developed after implant surgery compared with 24.7 expected based on incidence rates from the general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.7-1.6). Eight breast cancers were observed vs. 7.8 expected (SIR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.4-2.0). No evidence was found to link breast implants with increased cancer risk in the decade after surgery. While the results are encouraging, longer follow-up into later life will be necessary to assess fully any possible adverse effects.
Intuitively, breast tissue mass should be directly related to a woman's risk of breast cancer, simply because having more cells at risk would seem to increase the potential for malignant transformation. However, studies attempting to link breast size with breast cancer risk have been inconsistent. Limitations include crude measures of breast size, the inability to distinguish glandular from adipose tissue, and the confounding influence of co-factors such as obesity. A nationwide study in Denmark was undertaken to investigate the effect of breast reduction surgery on the subsequent risk of breast cancer, including an evaluation of the patterns of risk by age and time since surgery. The Danish Hospital Discharge Registry was used to identify women who underwent reduction mammaplasty between 1977 and 1992. Linkage based on personal identification numbers with the Danish Cancer Registry provided information on cancer incidence. Expected numbers of cancers were calculated from rates in the general population. Among 7,720 women whose breasts were surgically reduced, 182 cancers were subsequently observed cf 209 expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 0.9;95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-1.0). Breast cancer was significantly reduced by nearly 50 percent (29 observed cf 53.9 expected, SIR = 0.5, CI = 0.4-0.8), and accounted for the overall deficit in cancer. The risk reductions were related inversely to age at surgery, with significant deficits apparent only among women 40 years of age and older at surgery and especially among those over age 50 (SIR = 0.3). No clear trend was apparent with increasing years post-surgery. The findings indicate that breast reduction surgery among women over age 40 is associated with a lower subsequent risk of breast cancer, but the surgery and presumably glandular mass appear less closely related to breast cancer risk among younger women.
Comment In: Cancer Causes Control. 1997 Mar;8(2):125-69134234
Most studies on cancer incidence after breast implantation have focused on breast cancer, while the risk of cancers at other sites has been less well investigated. We examined cancer incidence among 1,653 women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery at private clinics of plastic surgery in Denmark and 1,736 women attending the same clinics for other reasons during the period 1973-1995. Furthermore, we updated previously reported results among 1,114 women who received implants for cosmetic indications at public hospitals. All women were followed for cancer through the Danish Cancer Registry. In comparison with the general female population, the overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for cancer among women who received implants in private clinics was 1.65 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-2.27]. This elevated SIR reflected increased incidence ratios for almost all major cancer sites; however, only for non-melanoma skin cancer was there an excess of more than 2 cases. No significant excess of cancer was observed among women who received implants in public hospitals (SIR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.76-1.52) or among women attending the private clinics for other problems (SIR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.78-1.52). The SIRs for breast cancer after breast implantation were 1.1 (95% CI = 0.5-2.2) among private clinic patients and 0.9 (95% CI = 0.4-1.7) among public hospital patients. The overall findings of these 2 implant cohorts and results from other investigations suggest that cancer risk is probably not increased among women receiving cosmetic breast implants. The inconsistent results for private clinics and public hospitals are likely related to selection bias and confounding among the private clinic patients, but our data did not permit exploration of these possibilities. Further research into the determinants of these inconsistencies is warranted.
Cancer is more frequent among diabetes patients, but it is unknown how this excess varies with duration of diabetes and insulin use. The aim of this study was to analyse disease data to examine this issue further.
We linked the Danish National Diabetes Register and Cancer Registry and performed a cohort analysis of the entire Danish population by diabetes status, duration of diabetes and insulin use, comparing cancer incidence rates in diabetic patients with the non-diabetic population for the 15 year period 1995-2009, using Poisson regression with natural splines to describe the variation by duration.
We found 20,032 cancer cases among patients not using insulin and 2,794 cancer cases among diabetic patients using insulin. The cancer incidence rate ratio among non-insulin users relative to the non-diabetic population decreased from over 2 at diagnosis to 1.15 after 2 years of diabetes duration. The cancer incidence rate ratio was higher among patients using insulin, decreasing from 5 at the start of insulin treatment to about 1.3 [corrected] after 5 years of insulin use. Among non-insulin users, cancers of the stomach, colorectum, liver, pancreas, lung, corpus uteri, kidney and brain, and lymphomas were elevated. Among insulin users the rate ratio of prostate cancer was decreasing by duration whereas we found higher risk of cancer of the stomach, lung, liver, pancreas and kidney. Breast cancer incidence rates were not affected by either diabetes or insulin use.
The observed duration effects suggest that both increased surveillance for cancer in the first years after diagnosis of diabetes, and reverse causation, where undiagnosed cancers increase the likelihood of diabetes diagnosis, play a role. For longer durations, a combination of common causes for diabetes and cancer, as well as the effects of diabetes and insulin exposure per se, may play a role in the association between diabetes and some cancers.