Anthropometric measurement is a noninvasive and cost-efficient method for nutritional assessment. The study aims to present age- and gender-specific anthropometric reference data for Swedish elderly in relation to common medical conditions, and also formulate prediction equations for such anthropometric measurements.
A cross-sectional study among random heterogeneous sample of 3360 subjects, aged 60-99 years, from a population study 'Good Aging in Scania. Means (±s.d.) and percentiles for height, weight, waist-, hip-, arm-, calf circumferences, triceps- (TST) and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were presented. The values were estimated based on the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac failure (CHF), stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and dependence in daily living activities (ADL). Linear regression analysis was used to formulate the prediction equations.
Mean BMI was 27.5±5.8?kg/m(2) (men) and 27.2±8.1?kg/m(2) (women). WHR was higher among men (Men: 0.98±0.3, women: 0.87±0.2), except at age 85+ (women: 0.91±0.6). TST was 6.7±0.4?mm higher among women. Men with MI had BMI: 28.6±4.8?kg/m(2) and SST: 21±9.2?mm, whereas subjects with dementia had lower weight (by 9.5±2.9?kg) compared with the non-demented. ADL-dependent women had BMI= 29.0±3.9?kg/m(2), TST=19.2±1.3?mm.
New normative data on gender- and age-specific anthropometrics on the general elderly population are presented. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with subcutaneous and central adiposity opposed to fat loss with dementia. ADL dependence indicates inadequate physical activity. The prediction models could be used as possible indicators monitoring physical activity and adiposity among the general elderly population hence potential health indicators in health promotion.
Previous observational studies on the association between brachial blood pressure (BP) and cognition have reported conflicting results. Central BP has been hypothesized to be more strongly related to cognition than brachial BP. The aim of this study was to assess the association between brachial as well as central BP and cognitive function, both cross-sectionally and with brachial BP measured 17 years before cognitive testing. The study population comprised 2548 individuals aged 61-85 years at follow-up (61.4% women). The cognitive tests administered were A Quick Test of cognitive speed and the Mini Mental State Examination. In fully adjusted linear regressions, small but significant cross-sectional associations were found between higher BP (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) and worse results on both of the cognitive tests (P-values
BACKGROUND: If several risk factors for disease are considered in a regression model and these factors are affected by measurement errors, the observed relative risk will be attenuated. In nutritional epidemiology, several nutrient variables show strong correlation, described as collinearity. The observed relative risk will then depend not only on the validity of the chosen diet assessment method but also on collinearity between variables in the model. METHODS: The validity of different diet assessment methods are compared. The correlation coefficients between common nutrients and foods are given using data from the Malm? Food Study. Intake of nutrients and foods were assessed with a modified diet history method, combining a 2-week food record for beverages and lunch/dinner meals and a food frequency questionnaire for other foods. The study population comprised 165 men and women aged 50-65 years. A multivariate logistic regression model is used to illustrate the effect of collinearity on observed relative risk (RRo). RESULTS: A moderate to high correlation between risk factors will substantially influence RRo even when using diet assessment methods with high validity. Methods with low validity might even give inverse RRo. CONCLUSION: It is stressed that caution must be exercised and only a selected number of variables should be included in the model, especially when they are highly intercorrelated, since RRo might be severely biased.
Eighty-year-old male residents in the community of Malmö were questioned about smoking habits and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Of 1,280 subjects, 122 were selected for further studies and allocated into 4 groups: 1) no CVD, non-smokers; 2) no CVD, smokers; 3) CVD, smokers; and 4) CVD, non-smokers. The smokers had consumed on the average 13 g of tobacco daily for 59 years. Lean body mass (LBM), body fat (BF), % body fat (%BF), and total body water (TBW) were estimated by means of bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean body weight (BW), LBM, and %BF for all subjects were 74.1 +/- 10.2 kg, 58.0 +/- 6.8 kg, and 21.3 +/- 5.9 kg, respectively. There were no significant differences between all subjects with and without CVD. A lower BW among smokers than in non-smokers was explained by lower BF and %BF in the former. Smokers who had lived predominantly in rural areas had lower BW (6.9 kg) and LBM (5.2 kg) than those from an urban area. A positive correlation was noted between the degree of physical activity and LBM and TBW. Seventeen percent of the smokers exercised regularly. The CVD group had higher plasma cholesterol concentrations than the non-CVD group. Plasma triglycerides showed a positive correlation with BF, %BF and BW, whereas HDL cholesterol was negatively correlated with BF, %BF and BW. It is concluded that smoking is one of several important factors related to body composition, and the penetrance of this factor is still apparent in elderly men.
Cerebrovascular disease may be linked with vascular autoregulation in aging. The aim of this study was to examine relation between nocturnal blood pressure (BP) fall and cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in elderly men. The prospective 'Men born in 1914' cohort study has been in progress since 1968 and included 809 subjects. After 14 years from the last follow up, 97 subjects reached the age of 82 and underwent CBF measurement and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Diastolic BP at night decreased in 84 subjects with median 12.7% and increased in 13 subjects with median 3.7%. Relative diastolic BP fall at night was negatively associated to CBF in temporal and infero-parietal areas. Higher proportion of subjects with increasing systolic BP during the 14-year period was observed in the subgroup with extreme nocturnal diastolic BP dip, irrespectively of BP values or prevalence of hypertension. Extreme nocturnal diastolic BP fall in a cohort of elderly men is correlated with focal changes in CBF. Further studies could explain if increasing BP in the elderly is a cause or result of pathological autoregulation, and if antihypertensive treatment increases nocturnal BP dip.
We conducted a first pilot study on healthy women living in two countries with different dietary habits, Granada in the south of Spain and Malmö in the south of Sweden, in order to compare their levels of plasma phospholipid fatty acids, and to examine the relationship between the differences in food consumption. This study is part of a pilot study which is nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study on diet, plasma concentrations of antioxidants and fatty acids, and markers of oxidative stress. Thirty-nine women in Granada and thirty-eight women in Malmö, aged 45-50 years (all pre-menopausal) were selected among the female participants in the cohorts from these two countries. Individual measurements of the women's habitual diet were obtained by a food frequency questionnaire. 24-hour diet recalls were used for the standardised measurement of diet at group level. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography. We found a different fatty acid profile in plasma between the two populations, with higher mean levels of palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1) (n-7), oleic acid (18:1), alpha-linolenic acid (18:3) (n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) (n-3), and lower mean levels of stearic acid (18:0) in Malmö compared to Granada. Women in Malmö consumed more meat, alcoholic beverages and sugar, and less fish and shellfish than women in Granada. We conclude that the fatty acid composition in plasma phospholipids is different between women from the two European centres. For polyunsaturated fatty acids, differences were observed for (n-3) fatty acids. In relation to these differences, we observed that specific food intakes, particularly meat and fish, varied between the two centres.
The objective was to examine relationships between meat and other food items which have been associated with higher risk of cancer in the colon and prostate in some epidemiological studies. The study was conducted as a population-based cohort study comprising 11648 subjects (4816 male and 6742 female) born between 1926 and 1945 and living in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Data on mean daily intake of foods and nutrients were assessed with a diet history method combining a 7-day menu book and a food frequency questionnaire. Increasing meat intake, expressed in quintiles and adjusted for energy, was associated with decreasing intakes of poultry, fish, fruits, bread, cereals and cheese in both sexes. Low negative correlations between meat intake and ascorbic acid (r= -0.11) and fiber (r= -0.16 to -0.20) were noted. The average intake of fat from meat out of total fat intake was 13.6% in men and 11.9% in women. No major associations were noted between meat and the cholesterol raising fatty acids C:12:0, C:14:0, C:160 nor for C:20:4 or its precursor C:18:2. In conclusion, our findings indicate that meat consumption is negatively associated with food groups rich in antioxidants and fiber and the positive covariance reported between meat and cancer and coronary heart disease might, therefore, not be directly linked to components in meat.
A total of 1280 80-year-old men were invited to a medical examination to study common risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the elderly. From the pool of 811 responders (63.3%), all 122 individuals who fulfilled our inclusion criteria were assigned to one of four groups: (1) no CVD, non-smokers; (2) no CVD, smokers; (3) CVD, smokers; (4) CVD, non-smokers. A telephone interview with 75 non-responders suggested that this group contained more institutionalized subjects, but otherwise did not differ from the group of participants. Subjects with CVD had higher levels of plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than those without CVD, whereas plasma HDL cholesterol and plasma triglyceride concentrations did not differ between the groups; thus the LDL/HDL ratio was higher in the CVD group. Lipoprotein concentrations did not differ between smokers and non-smokers. However, the mean cholesterol levels were low (5.19 +/- 1.01 mmol l-1), suggesting selective mortality. No differences between the groups were found with regard to Lp(a). The mean blood pressure for the whole group was 149/79 mmHg, and there were no differences between subgroups. Our study suggests that mechanisms such as selective mortality modify the risk factor pattern in the elderly. In 80-year-old individuals, elevated LDL cholesterol levels can still be identified as a risk indicator for CVD, whereas there does not appear to be any association between CVD or low HDL levels or elevated blood pressure in this age group.
The burden of caregivers of patients suffering from of Alzheimer type dementia (DAT) and vascular dementia (VD) was analysed at the critical time, the "breaking-point", when home care becomes insufficient and/or inadequate and the caregiver burden has probably reached its upper limit. Primary family caregivers of 39 DAT and 40 VD patients who were being considered for relocation into group-living units were studied. Total caregiving burden and different aspects of the burden: general strain, isolation, disappointment, and emotional involvement, were correlated with the patients' diagnoses, abilities, and symptoms. Closer kinship to the patient imposed a heavier burden. The caregiver's gender, social class, and previous institutionalization of the patient did not influence the caregiver burden. There was no significant correlation between the patients' ADL ability or cognition and the burden. A higher level of disappointment was found among the VD carers. Different symptomatology in patients of the two diagnostic groups was related to special aspects of the burden. Multiple regression analysis showed that the amount of caregiving time each week and impaired sense of own identity, misidentifications, clinical fluctuations, and nocturnal deterioration in the patients predicted the breaking-point.