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Assessing hypertension in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191070
Source
Int Psychogeriatr. 2001;13 Supp 1:115-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
H S Davis
H R Merry
C. MacKnight
K. Rockwood
Author Affiliation
Division of Geriatric Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
Int Psychogeriatr. 2001;13 Supp 1:115-23
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection - statistics & numerical data
Drug Utilization
Female
Humans
Hypertension - diagnosis - drug therapy - mortality
Incidence
Male
Mathematical Computing
Myocardial Infarction - mortality
Risk
Stroke - mortality
Survival Analysis
Abstract
We investigated the self-report hypertension variables in the CSHA, recorded in the screening questionnaire and the Self-Administered Risk Factor (SARF) questionnaire. The two questions showed high agreement (phi coefficient 0.83). Each was modestly but significantly associated with other simultaneous reports of heart disease and stroke, and with subsequent mortality. Only the SARF asked questions about treatment; controlling for treatment effects, five-year survival was longest among those with no hypertension and no treatment (mean survival time 1,645 days; 95% CI 1,632 to 1,658), and shortest for those with no reported hypertension who were receiving "antihypertensive" medications presumably prescribed for other cardiovascular disease (mean survival time 1,496 days; 95% CI 1,457 to 1,535). The SARF questions incorporating high blood pressure and treatment appear preferable to assess the risks associated with hypertension.
PubMed ID
11892958 View in PubMed
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Assessing the "criminalization" of the mentally ill in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222998
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1992 Oct;37(8):532-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1992
Author
S. Davis
Author Affiliation
School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1992 Oct;37(8):532-8
Date
Oct-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Criminal Law - legislation & jurisprudence
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Deinstitutionalization - legislation & jurisprudence
Homeless Persons - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Humans
Insanity Defense
Mental Disorders - rehabilitation
United States
Abstract
This paper is an overview of the conceptual and methodological problems encountered trying to assess the hypothesis that the mentally ill, as a consequence of deinstitutionalization, are being "criminalized". Generalizations are difficult to make, in large part because most of the studies are American and do not fit well into the Canadian scene. Relevant Canadian findings are reviewed and compared to the US data. There is some evidence that Canadian patients may be diverted from the criminal justice system more often than in the US, where there are fewer resources. However, this conclusion must be tempered by the fact that Canadian surveys have found high rates of mental disorder among prison and jail inmates.
PubMed ID
1423153 View in PubMed
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Changes to the Criminal Code provisions for mentally disordered offenders and their implications for Canadian psychiatry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221533
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1993 Mar;38(2):122-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1993
Author
S. Davis
Author Affiliation
School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1993 Mar;38(2):122-6
Date
Mar-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Commitment of Mentally Ill - legislation & jurisprudence
Expert Testimony - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Insanity Defense
Length of Stay - legislation & jurisprudence
Liability, Legal
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - psychology - rehabilitation
Abstract
Bill C-30, implemented in February 1992, made a number of significant changes to the Criminal Code provisions concerning the assessment, treatment and disposition of mentally disordered persons charged with a crime, including persons considered to be unfit to stand trial or pleading insanity. The changes deal mainly with procedural law and the civil rights of persons being assessed or held in custody, and put limits on where, how long and for what purpose persons may be detained. The new law abolishes the automatic, indeterminate detention of persons found unfit to stand trial or not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder. The changes may mean that the forensic psychiatric route is now a more "attractive option" for defendants. The new law may create administrative problems for clinicians by leading to increased requests for psychiatric assessments while at the same time constraining the assessment process.
Notes
Comment In: Can J Psychiatry. 1993 Jun;38(5):303-48348466
PubMed ID
8467438 View in PubMed
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Childhood leukaemia in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine following the Chernobyl power station accident: results from an international collaborative population-based case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29376
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2005 Nov 3;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-3-2005
Author
S. Davis
R W Day
K J Kopecky
M C Mahoney
P L McCarthy
A M Michalek
K B Moysich
L E Onstad
V F Stepanenko
P G Voillequé
T. Chegerova
K. Falkner
S. Kulikov
E. Maslova
V. Ostapenko
N. Rivkind
V. Shevchuk
A F Tsyb
Author Affiliation
Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2005 Nov 3;
Date
Nov-3-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence regarding the risk of leukaemia in children following exposure to radionuclides from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant explosion on April 26, 1986. METHODS: This population-based case-control study investigated whether acute leukaemia is increased among children who were in utero or
PubMed ID
16269548 View in PubMed
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Circumpolar Genetic Structure and Recent Gene Flow of Polar Bears: A Reanalysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270923
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0148967
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
René M Malenfant
Corey S Davis
Catherine I Cullingham
David W Coltman
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0148967
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Recently, an extensive study of 2,748 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from across their circumpolar range was published in PLOS ONE, which used microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes to apparently show altered population structure and a dramatic change in directional gene flow towards the Canadian Archipelago-an area believed to be a future refugium for polar bears as their southernmost habitats decline under climate change. Although this study represents a major international collaborative effort and promised to be a baseline for future genetics work, methodological shortcomings and errors of interpretation undermine some of the study's main conclusions. Here, we present a reanalysis of this data in which we address some of these issues, including: (1) highly unbalanced sample sizes and large amounts of systematically missing data; (2) incorrect calculation of FST and of significance levels; (3) misleading estimates of recent gene flow resulting from non-convergence of the program BayesAss. In contrast to the original findings, in our reanalysis we find six genetic clusters of polar bears worldwide: the Hudson Bay Complex, the Western and Eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the Western and Eastern Polar Basin, and-importantly-we reconfirm the presence of a unique and possibly endangered cluster of bears in Norwegian Bay near Canada's expected last sea-ice refugium. Although polar bears' abundance, distribution, and population structure will certainly be negatively affected by ongoing-and increasingly rapid-loss of Arctic sea ice, these genetic data provide no evidence of strong directional gene flow in response to recent climate change.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26974333 View in PubMed
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The climate, the fuel and the land use: long-term regional variability of biomass burning in boreal forests.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292671
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 Jun 30; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-30-2018
Author
Chiara Molinari
Veiko Lehsten
Olivier Blarquez
Christopher Carcaillet
Basil A S Davis
Jed O Kaplan
Jennifer Clear
Richard H W Bradshaw
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sweden.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 Jun 30; :
Date
Jun-30-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The influence of different drivers on changes in North American and European boreal forests biomass burning (BB) during the Holocene was investigated based on the following hypotheses: land use was important only in the southernmost regions, while elsewhere climate was the main driver modulated by changes in fuel type. BB was reconstructed by means of 88 sedimentary charcoal records divided into six different site clusters. A statistical approach was used to explore the relative contribution of (1) pollen-based mean July/summer temperature and mean annual precipitation reconstructions, (2) an independent model-based scenario of past land use (LU), and (3) pollen-based reconstructions of plant functional types (PFTs) on BB. Our hypotheses were tested with: (1) a west-east northern boreal sector with changing climatic conditions and a homogeneous vegetation, and (2) a north-south European boreal sector characterized by gradual variation in both climate and vegetation composition. The processes driving BB in boreal forests varied from one region to another during the Holocene. However, general trends in boreal biomass burning were primarily controlled by changes in climate (mean annual precipitation in Alaska, northern Quebec and northern Fennoscandia, and mean July/summer temperature in central Canada and central Fennoscandia) and, secondarily, by fuel composition (BB positively correlated with the presence of boreal needleleaf evergreen trees in Alaska and in central and southern Fennoscandia). Land use played only a marginal role. A modification towards less flammable tree species (by promoting deciduous stands over fire-prone conifers) could contribute to reduce circumboreal wildfire risk in future warmer periods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
29959810 View in PubMed
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The climate, the fuel and the land use: Long-term regional variability of biomass burning in boreal forests.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297723
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 10; 24(10):4929-4945
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2018
Author
Chiara Molinari
Veiko Lehsten
Olivier Blarquez
Christopher Carcaillet
Basil A S Davis
Jed O Kaplan
Jennifer Clear
Richard H W Bradshaw
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 10; 24(10):4929-4945
Date
10-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Biomass
Charcoal - analysis
Climate
Climate change
Fires
Humans
Rain
Taiga
Temperature
Trees - classification
Abstract
The influence of different drivers on changes in North American and European boreal forests biomass burning (BB) during the Holocene was investigated based on the following hypotheses: land use was important only in the southernmost regions, while elsewhere climate was the main driver modulated by changes in fuel type. BB was reconstructed by means of 88 sedimentary charcoal records divided into six different site clusters. A statistical approach was used to explore the relative contribution of (a) pollen-based mean July/summer temperature and mean annual precipitation reconstructions, (b) an independent model-based scenario of past land use (LU), and (c) pollen-based reconstructions of plant functional types (PFTs) on BB. Our hypotheses were tested with: (a) a west-east northern boreal sector with changing climatic conditions and a homogeneous vegetation, and (b) a north-south European boreal sector characterized by gradual variation in both climate and vegetation composition. The processes driving BB in boreal forests varied from one region to another during the Holocene. However, general trends in boreal biomass burning were primarily controlled by changes in climate (mean annual precipitation in Alaska, northern Quebec, and northern Fennoscandia, and mean July/summer temperature in central Canada and central Fennoscandia) and, secondarily, by fuel composition (BB positively correlated with the presence of boreal needleleaf evergreen trees in Alaska and in central and southern Fennoscandia). Land use played only a marginal role. A modification towards less flammable tree species (by promoting deciduous stands over fire-prone conifers) could contribute to reduce circumboreal wildfire risk in future warmer periods.
PubMed ID
29959810 View in PubMed
Less detail

Design of a 9K illumina BeadChip for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from RAD and transcriptome sequencing.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273076
Source
Mol Ecol Resour. 2015 May;15(3):587-600
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
René M Malenfant
David W Coltman
Corey S Davis
Source
Mol Ecol Resour. 2015 May;15(3):587-600
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Genotyping Techniques - methods
Microarray Analysis - methods
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis - methods
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Transcriptome
Ursidae - classification - genetics
Abstract
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) offer numerous advantages over anonymous markers such as microsatellites, including improved estimation of population parameters, finer-scale resolution of population structure and more precise genomic dissection of quantitative traits. However, many SNPs are needed to equal the resolution of a single microsatellite, and reliable large-scale genotyping of SNPs remains a challenge in nonmodel species. Here, we document the creation of a 9K Illumina Infinium BeadChip for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), which will be used to investigate: (i) the fine-scale population structure among Canadian polar bears and (ii) the genomic architecture of phenotypic traits in the Western Hudson Bay subpopulation. To this end, we used restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing from 38 bears across their circumpolar range, as well as blood/fat transcriptome sequencing of 10 individuals from Western Hudson Bay. Six-thousand RAD SNPs and 3000 transcriptomic SNPs were selected for the chip, based primarily on genomic spacing and gene function respectively. Of the 9000 SNPs ordered from Illumina, 8042 were successfully printed, and - after genotyping 1450 polar bears - 5441 of these SNPs were found to be well clustered and polymorphic. Using this array, we show rapid linkage disequilibrium decay among polar bears, we demonstrate that in a subsample of 78 individuals, our SNPs detect known genetic structure more clearly than 24 microsatellites genotyped for the same individuals and that these results are not driven by the SNP ascertainment scheme. Here, we present one of the first large-scale genotyping resources designed for a threatened species.
PubMed ID
25187336 View in PubMed
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Efficacy of omeprazole for the prevention of exercise-induced gastritis in racing Alaskan sled dogs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5280
Source
J Vet Intern Med. 2003 Mar-Apr;17(2):163-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
M S Davis
M D Willard
S L Nelson
S M McCullough
R E Mandsager
J. Roberts
M E Payton
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiological Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA. msdavis@okstate.edu
Source
J Vet Intern Med. 2003 Mar-Apr;17(2):163-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Dog Diseases - etiology - prevention & control
Dogs
Gastritis - etiology - prevention & control
Gastrointestinal Agents - pharmacology
Omeprazole - pharmacology
Physical Conditioning, Animal - adverse effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Exercise-induced gastritis and gastric ulcers are common in humans and horses, and recently have been described in racing sled dogs. The cause of exercise-induced gastric disease is not completely understood in any species, but pharmacologic suppression of acid secretion is an effective treatment in humans and horses. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that omeprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor shown to reduce gastric acid secretion in dogs, would reduce the severity of exercise-induced gastric disease. Three teams of 16 dogs each competing in the 2002 Iditarod Sled Dog Race were recruited for participation. Within each team, dogs were randomly assigned to either treatment (20 mg omeprazole PO q24h) or placebo. Treatments were administered until either completion of the race or withdrawal of an individual dog from competition. Gastric endoscopy was performed in all dogs 24 hours after completion or withdrawal, and the gastric mucosa was scored by using a subjective severity score (0 = normal, 3 = numerous bleeding ulcers). Treatment with omeprazole significantly reduced mean gastricseverity score compared to placebo (omeprazole: 0.65 +/- 0.17, placebo: 1.09 +/- 0.18; P = .028), but also was associated with increased frequency of diarrhea during the race (omeprazole 54%, placebo 21%; P = .017). Examination of our data suggests that omeprazole may be an effective treatment for exercise-induced gastric disease in racing sled dogs. However, further investigation regarding the cause and clinical relevance of diarrhea associated with omeprazole treatment must be conducted before omeprazole can be recommended for routine prophylactic treatment in these athletes.
PubMed ID
12683615 View in PubMed
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30 records – page 1 of 3.