Two epidemiologically unrelated outbreaks of trichinellosis were registered in Rostov Province in the November and December of 1984 with 16 patients in the Salsk District and 20 patients in Rostov-on-Don. The course of the disease was characterized by 6-20% of severe and 31-45% moderate forms, respectively. The source of the infection was pork that had not been controlled for Trichinella spiralis. Late diagnosis and inadequate treatment in one case led to a fatal outcome. Economic losses accounted for 490,000 rubles (as of 1985). In spite of energetic prophylaxis measures, the situation in the Rostov Province continues to be serious. In 1989-1992, eighteen cases of trichinellosis were registered in the Salsk District again.
The paper presents the results of clinical, epidemiological, and epizootological analyses of local cases of human dirofilariasis in the Nizhny Novgorod Region, which suggest that natural and climatic changes, namely the abnormally hot summer in 2010-2011 and increasing migratory processes among human beings and animals, open up possibilities for forming foci ofdirofilariasis outside habitats of Dirofilaria repens.
The southern region is marked by a high incidence of parasitic diseases and a significant contamination of environmental objects with the eggs and cysts of their pathogens. Background examinations revealed the greatest soil contamination with helminthic eggs in the Temryuksky District of the Krasnodar Territory and in the towns of Vladikavkaz and Digora of the Republic of North Ossetia (Alania). The least contamination was found in Rostov-on-Don and the towns of the south-western area of the Krasnodar Territory. The eggs of Toxocara and astamination. There is an increase in the proportion of soil positive tests from 26.6 to 50.0, with the high (up to 82.0-100.0%) viability of eggs and a rise in the intensive index of their content per kg of soil (from 2.7 to 4.7-11.0). Toxocara eggs were mainly detected. The established high proportion of seropositive persons (10.7-18.0%) among the local population is an additional verification of the wide circulation of Toxocara eggs in nature. By the helminthic egg contamination index, the soils of localities of the south of Russia are qualified as those of moderate epidemic hazard. The floods accompanied by the increased helminthological contamination of the upper soil layer may lead to a higher human risk for contamination with helminthic diseases.
The present paper presents the epidemiological and clinicoimmunological aspects of the outburst of trichinosis in the Krymsky District of the Krasnodar Territory in January 2001. Six hundred and forty-eight persons ate infested wild boar meat, 119 (74.8%) fell ill with moderate and severe trichinosis. The authors provide the results of 3.5-year immunological studies of the patients with trichinosis and convalescents, infection-risk and healthy individuals; those of autopsies of the corpses of those who died from accidental causes unassociated with trichinosis, as well as examinations of domestic, synanthropic, and wild animals. The findings indicate that there is a focus of trichinosis with the low level of endemia in the Krymsky District of the Krasnodar Territory.
In the Rostov Region, there have been stable foci of dirofilariasis for a long time (since the 1990s). Two helminth species (Dirofilaria repens, D. immitis) parasitize in definitive hosts. There has been recently a species-specific alteration in the foci, by increasing the proportion of canine D. immitis invasion and mixed invasions associated with the change in weather and climatic conditions and in the species-specific composition of carriers. The smaller number of patients with dirofilariasis is a consequence of the reduced affection of dogs and mosquitos.