1. Canadian Field Epidemiology Program, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 2. Public Health Department, Montréal Health and Social Services Agency, Montréal, Québec, Canada. email@example.com.
Though rare in Montréal, meningococcal disease continues to cause serious morbidity and mortality. In an era of declining incidence, our objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and the timeliness of case reporting and the capacity to statistically detect disease clusters.
We used the public health department's reportable disease database (RDD) to calculate the timeliness of reporting by physicians and laboratories for the period 1995 to 2008. The sensitivity of case reporting was evaluated through capture-recapture estimation using the RDD and the hospitalization discharge database (MED-ECHO). To evaluate the detection of cases clustered by time and proximity, we applied scan statistics to the RDD with cases coded by time and geographic location for the period 1992 to 2008.
While the system sensitivity was judged to be high at 94%, physicians reported only 54% of cases. A total of 92.3% of cases were notified by physicians or laboratories within seven days, meaning that in theory, 13 cases were not notified in time to conduct thorough contact tracing and offer chemoprophylaxis to close contacts. In high-incidence years, scan statistics detected two statistically-significant clusters one to two weeks earlier than traditional detection through the manual monitoring of cumulative cases.
To improve system performance, we recommended increasing the emphasis of laboratory reporting, reinforcing early reporting by physicians and if incidence increases, using scan statistics to identify clusters that can add to a public health practitioner's initial "hunch" of an emerging outbreak.
In 2010, we observed isolates with matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns from 13 cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei in Montréal. We report on the emergence of this resistance type and a study of resistance mechanisms. The investigation suggested local transmission among men who have sex with men associated with sex venues.
Cites: Chemotherapy. 2008;54(4):274-818667817
Cites: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001 Oct 26;50(42):922-611699845
To explore the experiences of health care practitioners working with Aboriginal clients recovering from acquired brain injury (ABI).
Participatory research design using qualitative methods.
Fourteen in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted. The Framework Method of analysis was used to uncover emerging themes.
Five main categories emerged: practitioners' experience with brain injury, practitioners' experience with Aboriginal clients, specialized needs of Aboriginal clients recovering from brain injury, culturally sensitive care and traditional healing methods. These categories were then further divided into emergent themes and sub-themes where applicable, with particular emphasis on the specialized needs of Aboriginal clients.
Each emergent theme highlighted key challenges experienced by Aboriginal peoples recovering from ABI. A key challenge was that protocols for rehabilitation and discharge planning are often lacking for clients living on reserves or in remote communities. Other challenges included lack of social support; difficulty of travel and socio-cultural factors associated with post-acute care; and concurrent disorders.
Results suggest that developing reasonable protocols for discharge planning of Aboriginal clients living on reserves and/or remote communities should be considered a priority.