This study explored the incidence and aetiology of bloodstream infections after patients received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and a risk-based intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis against early onset sepsis caused by group B streptococcus. We also monitored clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance.
We studied 3986 positive blood cultures from children up to 17?years of age at a paediatric hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, using data from medical records before and after the initiatives, to reduce early onset sepsis, were introduced in 2007 and 2008.
Bloodstream infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae declined by 42% overall (5.6 to 3.2/100?000) and by 62% in previously healthy children under 36?months of age (24.2 to 9.2/100?000). Early onset sepsis caused by group B streptococcus declined by 60% (0.5 to 0.2/1000 live born children). Bacterial meningitis caused by these bacteria decreased by 70%. Staphylococcus aureus and various Gram-negative bacteria became the dominant pathogens, in both previously healthy children and those with underlying disease. Overall, antimicrobial resistance remained low between the two 5-year study periods.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and risk-based intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis against group B streptococcus effectively decreased the incidence of bloodstream infections. Empirical antibiotic therapy should target Staphylococcus aureus in?both community and hospital-acquired invasive bacterial infections.
To study the aetiology of bloodstream infections (BSI) in children 0-17 years, the influence of age and underlying co-morbidity on BSI rate, distribution of pathogens and outcome; and to provide data on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.
A retrospective population-based study. Data on blood cultures were collected at yearly intervals during 1998-2008. Information about risk factors, focal infection and outcome was retrieved from the patient charts.
We identified 1097 BSI. The incidence of BSI was 0.4/1000. The age-specific incidence was 2.3/1000 in neonates (0-28 days old) and 0.2/1000 in the age group 6-17 years. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen. The number of species causing BSI in previously healthy children was lower compared with children with co-morbidity. Most children requiring intensive care had a serious underlying illness. Antimicrobial resistance was rare and did not influence outcome. The case-fatality rate was 14.4% in neonates, 5.4% in children with co-morbidity and 1.7% in previously healthy children.
Mortality from BSI is low, and a limited spectrum of pathogens is isolated from previously healthy children compared with children with co-morbidity. When choosing empirical therapy for suspected BSI, age and presence of risk factors should be taken into account.
The aim of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the burden of severe disease caused by rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis in Swedish children aged 38.5°C upon admission. Complications occurred in > 10% of the children, with hypertonic dehydration (32/604) and seizures (10/604) occurring most frequently.
Rotaviruses may cause severe febrile acute gastroenteritis leading to dehydration requiring acute rehydration in hospital. In addition, further complications occurred in > 10% of hospitalized children.
We studied the effectiveness of the AS03-adjuvanted monovalent vaccine (Pandemrix(®)) for the prevention of severe pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in children, in 2009. All children hospitalized for influenza-like illness in Stockholm County during the peak of the pandemic were included. We compared the frequency of vaccinated children between influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 PCR positive cases and PCR negative controls in a retrospective case-control study. 95 cases and 177 controls were identified. About half of the children in both groups were between 6 months and 2 years of age. Only 1/95 (1%) cases had been vaccinated more than 14 days prior to admission, compared to 23/177 controls (13%), corresponding to a vaccine effectiveness, adjusted for co-morbid conditions, of 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30-99). In contrast, the risk for being a case was significantly higher among children vaccinated between 1 and 14 days prior to hospitalization, than among those who were non-vaccinated 13/95 vs. 7/177 (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4-9.5). We conclude that a single dose of adjuvanted vaccine was highly protective against hospitalization for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in children 6 month to 17 years. The reason for the increased rate of hospitalizations with confirmed influenza in children just following immunization is unclear and should be studied further.
The burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in high-income countries is still significant. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has reduced the overall need for hospitalization for CAP. However, it is not clear whether children with underlying disease also have benefitted from the PCV immunization programme. Children 0 to
Few prospective cohort studies have estimated the overall impact of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) leading to hospitalization on families and society. We assessed human and economic resources needed to care for an affected average child aged
Influenza remains a common reason for the hospitalization of children. There is a need for long term studies that are also population based. We describe the epidemiology of severe influenza in a defined population 1998-2014.
Retrospective study of annually collected data of virologically confirmed influenza in hospitalized children 0-17 years living in the catchment area (230,000 children). We gathered information about comorbidity and complications from case records, and compared Influenza A, B and A(H1N1)pdm09 with respect to these factors.
A total of 922 children with influenza were hospitalized. The mean rate remained unchanged at 22.5-24.2 per 100,000 children per year. There were two major outbreaks: influenza A(H3N2) in 2003-2004 and the A(H1N1) pandemic in 2009-2010. The proportion of children with influenza B increased from 8% during the first half of the study period to 28% during the second half. The highest admission rate was found in children
Increasing numbers of migrants to Sweden are screened for tuberculosis (TB), and a rational approach to screening is required. We evaluated positive tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) on paediatric migrants in relation to the TB incidence in the corresponding foreign-born populations in Stockholm.
This study examined the characteristics of migrants under the age of 18 who were referred to a paediatric TB clinic at Karolinska University Hospital from 2008 to 2014 by primary care centres in Stockholm County.
We saw 943 TST-positive children with a median age of 14 years at the TB clinic and performed IGRAs on 557. IGRA positivity ranged from 64% in migrants from Somalia to 20% in those from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, with an estimated population level prevalence of 18.8% and 4.2%, respectively. These were significantly correlated to TB incidence in foreign-born Stockholm children. We diagnosed active TB in 20 screened migrants, and advanced, symptomatic TB was diagnosed in 10 recently arrived migrants without screening.
IGRAs showed higher specificity than TST in identifying tuberculosis. TB screening should focus on migrants from high-incidence countries, but this may be inadequate to detect advanced TB cases.
Immunological studies have indicated that the effectiveness of AS03 adjuvanted monovalent influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine (Pandemrix) may be of longer duration than what is seen for non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines. Sixty-nine percent of children 6 months-18 years of age in Stockholm County received at least one dose of Pandemrix during the 2009 pandemic. We studied the effectiveness of the vaccine during the influenza seasons 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 in children hospitalized with virologically confirmed influenza. The season 2011-2012 was not included, since influenza A(H3N2) was the predominant circulating strain.
In a retrospective case-control study using a modified test-negative design we compared the percentage vaccinated with Pandemrix among children diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (cases), with that of those diagnosed with influenza A(H3N2) or influenza B (controls) during the two seasons. We excluded children born after July 1, 2009, since only children who were 6 months of age or older received the pandemic vaccine in October-December 2009.
During the 2010-2011 season, 3/16 (19%) of children diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, vs. 32/41 (78%) of those with influenza A(H3N2) or influenza B had been vaccinated with Pandemrix in 2009. The odds ratio, after adjustment for sex, age and underlying diseases, for becoming a case when vaccinated with Pandemrix was 0.083 (95%CI 0.014, 0.36), corresponding to a VE of 91.7%. During the season 2012-2013, there was no difference between the two groups; 59% of children diagnosed with influenza A(H3N2)/B and 60% of those with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 had been vaccinated with Pandemrix in 2009.
The AS03 adjuvanted monovalent influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 vaccine (Pandemrix) was effective in preventing hospital admission for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in children during at least two seasons.