Data collected from nationally representative samples of HD patients (n = 11,041) in 2002 to 2003 were used to describe current anemia management for long-term HD patients at 309 dialysis units in 12 countries. Analyses of associations and outcomes were adjusted for demographics, 15 comorbid classes, laboratory values, country, and facility clustering.
For patients on dialysis therapy for longer than 180 days, 23% to 77% had a hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration less than 11 g/dL ( or =110 g/L) if they were older; were men; had polycystic kidney disease; had greater albumin, transferrin saturation, or calcium levels; were not dialyzing with a catheter; or had lower ferritin levels. Facilities with greater intravenous iron use showed significantly greater facility mean Hgb concentrations. Mean EPO dose varied from 5,297 (Japan) to 17,360 U/wk (United States). Greater country mean EPO doses were significantly associated with greater country mean Hgb concentrations. Several patient characteristics were associated with greater EPO doses. Even in some countries with high intravenous iron use, 35% to 40% of patients had a transferrin saturation less than 20% (below guidelines).
These findings indicate large international variations in anemia management, with significant improvements during the last 5 years, although many patients remain below current anemia guidelines, suggesting large and specific opportunities for improvement.
We examined data from the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry, and from a special substudy of CORR, to determine whether changes have occurred in practice patterns before and after the 1999 Canadian Society of Nephrology guidelines were published. Second, we used data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study to calculate the impact of observed deviations from guideline targets and estimated potential gains in life years that might accrue if guideline targets were achieved in all Canadian hemodialysis patients. For dialysis dose and hemoglobin targets, there was a significant improvement in Canadian facility performance over time. On the other hand, vascular access care showed a worse pattern with increased catheter use. A calculation of attributable risk, which assumes causality, suggests that 49 percent of deaths could be averted if all patients currently outside the guidelines achieved them over the next five years. When expressed as an annual death rate per hundred patient years, this corresponds to a decrease from 18 to 10.1 deaths per 100 patient years. We conclude that promoting a facility-based culture of quality improvement based on achievement of guideline targets is supported by international and Canadian observational data from the DOPPS. In the future, the impact of such an approach should be assessed empirically by correlating changes in practice over time with changes in outcomes.
The optimal vascular access for chronic maintenance haemodialysis (HD) is the native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Vascular access practice patterns are reported for a Canadian cohort of patients from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS II).
DOPPS II is a prospective, observational study in 12 countries, including Canada. A representative random sample of 20 Canadian HD facilities and patients within those units were studied during 2002-2004. Canadian results were compared with those found in Europe and the USA.
AVF use in Canadian prevalent (53%) and incident (26%) patients was lower than Canadian guidelines recommend (60%), and lower than in Europe [prevalent (74%), incident (50%)]. Despite 85% of Canadian HD patients having seen a nephrologist for > 1 month prior to starting dialysis, central venous catheter use in Canada (33% in prevalent patients, 70% in incident patients) was much higher than in Europe (prevalent 18%, incident 46%) and slightly higher than in the USA (prevalent 25%, incident 66%). This pattern is contrary to the preferences of Canadian medical directors and vascular access surgeons. The typical time from referral until permanent vascular access creation is substantially longer in Canada (61.7 days) than in Europe (29.4 days) or the USA (16 days). This longer delay time and higher catheter use in Canada may be a consequence of the significantly lower number of access surgeons per 100 HD patients in Canada (2.9) compared with the USA (8.1) and Europe (4.6). Furthermore, the median hours per week devoted to vascular access-related surgery per 100 patients is substantially lower in Canada (0.027 h) compared with the USA (0.082 h) and Europe (0.059 h).
These findings suggest that Canadian chronic HD patients often rely on central venous catheters for vascular access, despite their known association with numerous detrimental outcomes in HD. Nephrologists, vascular access surgeons, interventional radiologists, other physicians and health care funding bodies must be more broadly educated about the priority of AVF creation as the preferred vascular access for chronic HD patients. They must work together to secure both the human and financial resources and other health care system enhancements to increase AVF creation rates in a timely manner.
Data from the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry (CORR) and the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) were used to determine whether practice patterns have changed in Canada since the introduction of the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) Guidelines in 1999. DOPPS data were then used to calculate the impact of not meeting the proposed guideline targets and to estimate the potential life years gained if all Canadian hemodialysis patients achieved guideline targets. For dialysis dose and hemoglobin targets, Canadian facility performance has significantly improved over time. The vascular access use patterns show trends toward a worse pattern with increased catheter use. A calculation of the percentage of attributable risk suggests that 49% of deaths could possibly be averted if all patients currently outside the guidelines achieved them over the next five years. This corresponds to a decrease in the annual death rate from 18 to 10.1 per hundred patient years. These data support the need for improved adherence to guidelines. If Canadian caregivers were to optimize practice patterns, patient outcomes could be improved.
The Coping Strategies Inventory-Short Form (CSI-SF) measures four coping strategies based on 16 items: 4 items each indicating problem- vs. emotion-focused engagement or disengagement. Here we provide the first assessment of reliability and construct validity of the CSI-SF among hemodialysis patients across 13 countries.
The CSI-SF was completed by patients in 9 languages in phase 4 of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (2009-11). Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to assess the factor structure of the CSI-SF by country and language. CSI-SF data were analyzed from 7201 patients (60% male; median age 62.5 [range 18-96] years).
Good internal consistency (a=0.56-0.80) was seen for three scales in English (US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand), German, and Swedish versions. The fourth scale was internally consistent if two items were dropped. In these countries, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a factor structure consistent with the four CSI-SF scales. Other language versions showed a factor structure inconsistent with these four scales.
The slightly modified English, German, and Swedish versions of the CSI-SF are reliable and valid instruments for measuring coping strategies in hemodialysis patients.
The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) is a prospective, observational study of the relationships between hemodialysis (HD) patient outcomes and HD treatment practices. The DOPPS began in 1996 in the United States, expanding to France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom in 1998-1999, and then to Australia, Belgium, Canada, New Zealand, and Sweden in 2002. More than 300 dialysis units have participated in the DOPPS since 1996, with mortality data collected from nearly 90,000HD patients and detailed longitudinal data from nearly 30,000 HD patients. Large sample size and the large treatment practice variation observed in the DOPPS--given its international scope of participation--provide strong statistical power to investigate many different HD practices. Furthermore, the detailed patient data collected in the DOPPS allow relationships to account for differences in a large number of patient characteristics. More than 55 papers have been published from the DOPPS; here we provide a summary of selected DOPPS findings regarding nutrition, mineral metabolism, anemia management, vascular access, depression, and use of multivitamins and statins.