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Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder at Psychiatric Discharge Predict General Hospital Admission for Self-Harm.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276606
Source
J Trauma Stress. 2015 Dec;28(6):556-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Liv Mellesdal
Rolf Gjestad
Erik Johnsen
Hugo A Jørgensen
Ketil J Oedegaard
Rune A Kroken
Lars Mehlum
Source
J Trauma Stress. 2015 Dec;28(6):556-62
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Borderline Personality Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Hospitals, Psychiatric - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inpatients - statistics & numerical data
Interview, Psychological
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Random Allocation
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Self-Injurious Behavior - epidemiology - psychology
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - epidemiology - psychology
Suicide - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
We investigated whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was predictor of suicidal behavior even when adjusting for comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other salient risk factors. To study this, we randomly selected 308 patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of suicide risk. Baseline interviews were performed within the first days of the stay. Information concerning the number of self-harm admissions to general hospitals over the subsequent 6 months was retrieved through linkage with the regional hospital registers. A censored regression analysis of hospital admissions for self-harm indicated significant associations with both PTSD (? = .21, p
Notes
Erratum In: J Trauma Stress. 2016 Feb;29(1):10626915448
PubMed ID
26581019 View in PubMed
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Cannabis use is associated with 3years earlier onset of schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a naturalistic, multi-site sample (N=1119).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277445
Source
Schizophr Res. 2016 Jan;170(1):217-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Siri Helle
Petter Andreas Ringen
Ingrid Melle
Tor-Ketil Larsen
Rolf Gjestad
Erik Johnsen
Trine Vik Lagerberg
Ole A Andreassen
Rune Andreas Kroken
Inge Joa
Wenche Ten Velden Hegelstad
Else-Marie Løberg
Source
Schizophr Res. 2016 Jan;170(1):217-21
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Cannabis
Family
Female
Humans
Male
Marijuana Abuse - complications - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Psychotic Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
Schizophrenia - complications - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and substance use may have an earlier onset of illness compared to those without substance use. Most previous studies have, however, too small samples to control for confounding variables and the effect of specific types of substances. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between substance use and age at onset, in addition to the influence of possible confounders and specific substances, in a large and heterogeneous multisite sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
The patients (N=1119) were recruited from catchment areas in Oslo, Stavanger and Bergen, Norway, diagnosed according to DSM-IV and screened for substance use history. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between substance use and age at onset of illness.
Patients with substance use (n=627) had about 3years earlier age at onset (23.0years; SD 7.1) than the abstinent group (n=492; 25.9years; SD 9.7). Only cannabis use was statistically significantly related to earlier age at onset. Gender or family history of psychosis did not influence the results.
Cannabis use is associated with 3years earlier onset of psychosis.
PubMed ID
26682958 View in PubMed
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Facing Spousal Cancer During Child-Rearing Years: Do Social Support and Hardiness Moderate the Impact of Psychological Distress on Quality of Life?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284803
Source
Cancer Nurs. 2017 May/Jun;40(3):E24-E34
Publication Type
Article
Author
Mette Senneseth
May A Hauken
Stig B Matthiesen
Rolf Gjestad
Jon C Laberg
Source
Cancer Nurs. 2017 May/Jun;40(3):E24-E34
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child Rearing
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - psychology - therapy
Norway
Parents - psychology
Quality of Life - psychology
Resilience, Psychological
Self Care
Social Support
Spouses - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied.
The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life.
Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study.
Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life.
Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care.
Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.
PubMed ID
27105469 View in PubMed
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Follow-up score, change score or percentage change score for determining clinical important outcome following surgery? An observational study from the Norwegian registry for Spine surgery evaluating patient reported outcome measures in lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299712
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Jan 18; 20(1):31
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Date
Jan-18-2019
Author
Ivar Magne Austevoll
Rolf Gjestad
Margreth Grotle
Tore Solberg
Jens Ivar Brox
Erland Hermansen
Frode Rekeland
Kari Indrekvam
Kjersti Storheim
Christian Hellum
Author Affiliation
Kysthospitalet in Hagevik, Orthopedic Clinic, Haukeland, University Hospital, Hagaviksbakken 25, 5217 Hagevik, Bergen, Norway. imau@helse-bergen.no.
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Jan 18; 20(1):31
Date
Jan-18-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Keywords
Aged
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lumbar Vertebrae - surgery
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Pain Measurement - methods - trends
Patient Reported Outcome Measures
Registries
Spinal Stenosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - surgery
Spondylolisthesis - diagnosis - epidemiology - surgery
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Assessment of outcomes for spinal surgeries is challenging, and an ideal measurement that reflects all aspects of importance for the patients does not exist. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EuroQol (EQ-5D) and Numeric Rating Scales (NRS) for leg pain and for back pain are commonly used patients reported outcome measurements (PROMs). Reporting the proportion of individuals with an outcome of clinical importance is recommended. Knowledge of the ability of PROMs to identify clearly improved patients is essential. The purpose of this study was to search cut-off criteria for PROMs that best reflect an improvement considered by the patients to be of clinical importance.
The Global Perceived Effect scale was utilized to evaluate a clinically important outcome 12?months after surgery. The cut-offs for the PROMs that most accurately distinguish those who reported 'completely recovered' or 'much improved' from those who reported 'slightly improved', unchanged', 'slightly worse', 'much worse', or 'worse than ever' were estimated. For each PROM, we evaluated three candidate response parameters: the (raw) follow-up score, the (numerical) change score, and the percentage change score.
We analysed 3859 patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis [(LSS); mean age 66; female gender 50%] and 617 patients with Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis [(LDS); mean age 67; 72% female gender]. The accuracy of identifying 'completely recovered' and 'much better' patients was generally high, but lower for EQ-5D than for the other PROMs. For all PROMs the accuracy was lower for the change score than for the follow-up score and the percentage change score, especially among patients with low and high PROM scores at baseline. The optimal threshold for a clinically important outcome was =24 for ODI, =0.69 for EQ-5D, =3 for NRS leg pain, and?=?4 for NRS back pain, and, for the percentage change score, =30% for ODI, =40% for NRS leg pain, and?=?33% for NRS back pain. The estimated cut-offs were similar for LSS and for LDS.
For estimating a 'success' rate assessed by a PROM, we recommend using the follow-up score or the percentage change score. These scores reflected a clinically important outcome better than the change score.
PubMed ID
30658613 View in PubMed
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Level and change in alcohol consumption, depression and dysfunctional attitudes among females treated for alcohol addiction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136092
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2011 May-Jun;46(3):292-300
Publication Type
Article
Author
Rolf Gjestad
Johan Franck
Knut A Hagtvet
Brit Haver
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Medicine, Section for Psychiatry, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen, Norway. rolf@gjestad.biz
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2011 May-Jun;46(3):292-300
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Attitude
Depression - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Female
Humans
Intervention Studies
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
To examine whether individual changes in alcohol consumption among female alcoholics under treatment are predicted by level of and changes in depression and dysfunctional attitudes.
A total of 120 women who were treated for alcohol addiction at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm (Sweden) were assessed twice over a 2-year period using the Depression scale from the Symptom Checklist-90, the Alcohol Use Inventory and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). Latent growth curve analysis was used.
Decrease in alcohol consumption, depression and dysfunctional attitude variables were found at group level. The results also showed significant individual variation in change. Changes in alcohol consumption were predicted by baseline alcohol drinking, as well as by level and changes in depression. Stronger reduction in depression was related to higher level of depression at baseline, and with reduction in dysfunctional attitudes. Different DAS sub-scales resulted in different magnitude of the model relations. Good treatment compliance was related to lower baseline level in depression, but also with higher baseline level in dysfunctional attitudes, and predicted stronger reduction in alcohol consumption.
This paper shows the importance of incorporating both individual level and change in depression as predictors of change in alcohol consumption among subjects treated for alcohol addiction. Also, dysfunctional attitudes are both indirectly and directly related to treatment outcome. By incorporating alcohol consumption, depression and dysfunctional attitudes as targets of intervention, treatment compliance and outcome may be enhanced.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21414951 View in PubMed
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A maritime disaster: reactions and follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185589
Source
Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2003;5(1):3-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Atle Dyregrov
Rolf Gjestad
Author Affiliation
Center for Crisis Psychology, Febrikkgaten 5, 5059 Bergen, Norway. atle@uib.no
Source
Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2003;5(1):3-14
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adult
Crisis Intervention - methods
Disasters
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Ships
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - prevention & control - psychology
Survivors - psychology
Abstract
In 1999, 69 people survived a maritime disaster on the Norwegian coast, during which 16 others died. Besides immediate psychosocial assistance, post-disaster intervention included psychological debriefings after one week, follow-up debriefing a month later, screening of those in need of individual help, and help for those returning to the scene of the disaster. The results of the psychometric tests showed that a considerable number of survivors scored above clinical cut-off points for extreme stress reactions. These results were compared with results from other studies of maritime disasters. Although the life threat and exposure in this disaster were extreme, the scores were lower than for the other studies, with one exception. The authors concluded the lower distress scores compared to other maritime disasters were probably impacted by the structured and caring system that was implemented to care for survivors. Almost all (93%) considered the debriefing meetings as helpful, and they were able to discriminate between different functions served by the meetings.
PubMed ID
12722485 View in PubMed
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Phobic anxiety and depression as predictor variables for treatment outcome. A LISREL analysis on treated female alcoholics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9111
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2005;59(1):25-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Brit Haver
Rolf Gjestad
Author Affiliation
Bergen Psychiatric University Hospital, Section Sandviken Hospital, Norway. brit.haver@psyk.uib.no
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2005;59(1):25-30
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - epidemiology - therapy
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Phobic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Predictive value of tests
Questionnaires
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The study focuses on the relationship between phobic anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, treatment and drinking outcome in female alcoholics. A structural equation analysis (LISREL) was used to test the strength and direction of predictor variables, enabling the development of models for the process of change taking place following treatment. Participants were patients attending a specific treatment programme for women with alcohol problems at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. One hundred and twenty female alcoholics consecutively admitted during 1991-1993 were followed up 2 years after treatment. The Alcohol Use Inventory (AUI) and Symptom Check List-90 were used at intake and follow-up. Duration of problem drinking and depression at follow-up affected drinking outcome directly and negatively, whereas duration of treatment affected drinking outcome directly and positively in all our models. Phobic anxiety on the other hand affected drinking outcome negatively and indirectly, via shorter treatment duration and higher depression at follow-up. Using different outcome variables as an end product resulted in only minor changes. Thus, the model presented is viewed as robust and clinically meaningful. The results underscore the importance of phobic anxiety and recurrent or sustained depression--in addition to the pre-treatment duration of problem drinking--for the drinking outcome among female alcoholics.
PubMed ID
16195095 View in PubMed
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Sexuality following the loss of a child.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135777
Source
Death Stud. 2011 Apr;35(4):289-315
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Atle Dyregrov
Rolf Gjestad
Author Affiliation
Center for Crisis Psychology, Bergen, Norway. atle@uib.no
Source
Death Stud. 2011 Apr;35(4):289-315
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Attitude to Death
Attitude to Health
Bereavement
Child
Coitus - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Parent-Child Relations
Parents - psychology
Pleasure
Quality of Life - psychology
Self Concept
Sex Factors
Sexual Partners - psychology
Abstract
The aim of study was to increase our understanding of sexuality and intimacy following the loss of a child. A questionnaire on intimacy and sexuality was sent to 1,027 members of the 2 major bereavement support organizations for parents who have lost children in Norway. A total of 321 (33%) were returned. In addition, 10 couples were interviewed in depth about their experiences. The final sample (n = 285) consisted of 169 women (59.3%) and 116 men (40.7%) who represented 175 couples. Parents who were neither married nor cohabitants were excluded, as were nonbiological parents. Around 2/3 of the parents had resumed sexual contact within the first 3 months after their child's death. The activity of about 1/3 had been reduced. Significantly fewer mothers than fathers experienced sexual pleasure and close to 30% of the mothers reported that this had been reduced since the death. Only 11% noted that sexuality as an issue was raised in follow-up conversations. Many parents have only a few sexuality-related problems following a child's death, but a fairly large minority, especially women, experience major problems, There are clear gender differences in reactions and perceptions, often agreed upon by the 2 genders. Men are ready to resume activity in the sexual area much earlier than women. Women suffer much more from grief that in different ways intrudes on the sexual act and they more often perceive sex as somehow being wrong. Men also easily misunderstand women's need for closeness as a wish for sex.
PubMed ID
24501822 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.