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The association between personal care products and lung function.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117352
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2013 Feb;23(2):49-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Robert E Dales
Sabit Cakmak
Judith Leech
Ling Liu
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada. rdales@ohri.ca
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2013 Feb;23(2):49-53
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Algorithms
Canada
Child
Cosmetics - adverse effects
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Forced Expiratory Volume - physiology
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Lung - drug effects - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Questionnaires
Respiratory Function Tests
Self Care
Sex Factors
Spirometry
Vital Capacity - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Chemical exposures are important determinants of respiratory health. The objective of the present study was to determine the association between the use of personal care products, which may contain respirable components, and lung function.
Using questionnaire and spirometry data collected during the Canadian Health Measures population survey, the association was tested between 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV(l)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) expressed as a percentage of predicted, and the frequency of use of personal care products categorized as eye makeup, fragrances, hairstyle products, lipstick, and scented body products.
Five thousand sixteen of the 5604 participants in the survey reported using at least one personal care product in the past 3 months. Among men and women, an interquartile increase in hairstyle products was associated with an approximate 2% decrease in both FEV(1) and FVC (P
PubMed ID
23305691 View in PubMed
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Associations between personal exposures and fixed-site ambient measurements of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in Toronto, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172794
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2006 Mar;16(2):172-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
David Kim
Andrea Sass-Kortsak
James T Purdham
Robert E Dales
Jeffrey R Brook
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7431, USA.
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2006 Mar;16(2):172-83
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Coronary Disease
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Female
Filtration
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Ontario
Particle Size
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
A longitudinal study investigating personal exposures to PM(2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and carbon monoxide (CO) for cardiac compromised individuals was conducted in Toronto, Canada. The aim of the study was (1) to examine the distribution of exposures to PM(2.5), NO(2), and CO; and (2) to investigate the relationship between personal exposures and fixed-site ambient measurements of PM(2.5), NO(2), and CO. In total, 28 subjects with coronary artery disease wore the Rupprecht & Patashnick ChemPass Personal Sampling System one day a week for a maximum of 10 weeks. The mean (SD) personal exposures were 22 microg m(-3) (42), 14 p.p.b. (6), and 1.4 p.p.m (0.5) for PM(2.5), NO(2), and CO, respectively. PM(2.5) and CO personal exposures were greater than central fixed-site ambient measurements, while the reverse pattern was observed for NO(2). Ambient PM(2.5) and NO(2) were correlated with personal exposures to PM(2.5) and NO(2) with median Spearman's correlation coefficients of 0.69 and 0.57, respectively. The correlations between personal exposures and ambient measurements made closest to the subjects' homes or the average of all stations within the study were not stronger than the correlation between personal exposures and central fixed-site measurements. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) were correlated with personal exposures to NO(2) (median Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.43). This study suggests that central fixed-site measurements of PM(2.5) and NO(2) may be treated as surrogates for personal exposures to PM(2.5) and NO(2) in epidemiological studies, and that NO(2) is a potential confounder of PM(2.5).
PubMed ID
16175198 View in PubMed
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A comparison of obese and nonobese people with asthma: exploring an asthma-obesity interaction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145424
Source
Chest. 2010 Jun;137(6):1316-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Smita Pakhale
Steve Doucette
Katherine Vandemheen
Louise-Philippe Boulet
R Andrew McIvor
J Mark Fitzgerald
Paul Hernandez
Catherine Lemiere
Sat Sharma
Stephen K Field
Gonzalo G Alvarez
Robert E Dales
Shawn D Aaron
Author Affiliation
MSc, The Ottawa Hospital, 501 Smyth Rd, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 8L6. spakhale@ohri.ca
Source
Chest. 2010 Jun;137(6):1316-23
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Algorithms
Asthma - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Gastroesophageal Reflux - complications - epidemiology
Humans
Hypertension - complications - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Quality of Life
Respiratory Function Tests
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
The objectives of our study were to compare patient characteristics and severity of disease in obese and normal-weight-confirmed people with asthma and to explore reasons for misdiagnosis of asthma, including potential interactions with obesity.
We randomly selected patients with physician-diagnosed asthma from eight Canadian cities. Asthma diagnosis was confirmed via a sequential lung function testing algorithm. Logistic analysis was conducted to compare obese and normal-weight-confirmed people with asthma and to assess characteristics associated with misdiagnosis of asthma. Interaction with obesity was investigated.
Complete assessments were obtained on 496 subjects who reported physician-diagnosed asthma (242 obese and 254 normal-weight subjects); 346 had asthma confirmed with sequential lung testing, and in 150 subjects a diagnosis of asthma was ruled out. Obese subjects with asthma were significantly more likely to be men, have a history of hypertension and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and have a lower FEV(1) compared with normal-weight subjects with asthma. Older subjects, men, and subjects with higher FEV(1) were more likely to have received misdiagnoses of asthma. Obesity was not an independent predictor of misdiagnosis, however there was an interaction between obesity and urgent visits for respiratory symptoms. The odds ratio for receiving a misdiagnosis of asthma for obese individuals as compared with normal-weight individuals was 4.08 (95% CI, 1.23-13.5) for those with urgent visits in the past 12 months.
Obese people with asthma have lower lung function and more comorbidities compared with normal-weight people with asthma. Obese individuals who make urgent visits for respiratory symptoms are more likely to receive a misdiagnosis of asthma.
PubMed ID
20154078 View in PubMed
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Does air pollution increase the effect of aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130092
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jan;129(1):228-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Sabit Cakmak
Robert E Dales
Frances Coates
Author Affiliation
Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jan;129(1):228-31
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - chemistry
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Allergens - analysis - chemistry
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Canada - epidemiology
Hospitalization
Humans
Pollen - chemistry
Abstract
Clinical experiments demonstrate that the asthmatic response to an aeroallergen can be enhanced by prior exposure to an air pollutant.
We sought to compare the effects of ambient aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma between high and low air pollution days in 11 large Canadian cities.
Daily time-series analysis was used, and results were adjusted for day of the week, temperature, barometric pressure, and relative humidity.
The relative risk of admission for an interquartile increase in tree pollen levels was 1.124 (95% CI, 1.101-1.147) on days of lower values of fine particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM(2.5)) compared with 1.179 (95% CI, 1.149-1.21) on days of higher PM(2.5) values. Significant (P = .05) differences in the relative risks of admission between lower versus higher values of particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 µm in diameter were 1.149 (95% CI, 1.118-1.181) versus 1.210 (95% CI, 1.161-1.261) for ascomycetes, 1.112 (95% CI, 1.085-1.14) versus 1.302 (95% CI, 1.242-1.364) for basidiomycetes, 1.159 (95% CI, 1.125-1.195) versus 1.149 (95% CI, 1.129-1.169) for deuteromycetes, and 1.061 (95% CI, 1.016-1.107) versus 1.117 (95% CI, 1.092-1.143) for weeds.
We identified an association between aeroallergens and hospitalizations for asthma, which was enhanced on days of higher air pollution. Minimizing exposure to air pollution might reduce allergic exacerbations of asthma.
PubMed ID
22035655 View in PubMed
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Does socio-demographic status influence the effect of pollens and molds on hospitalization for asthma? Results from a time-series study in 10 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176087
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Mar;15(3):214-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
Sabit Cakmak
Robert E Dales
Stan Judek
Frances Coates
Author Affiliation
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Health Canada, Canada.
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Mar;15(3):214-8
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Allergens - toxicity
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Atmospheric Pressure
Basidiomycota - pathogenicity
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - toxicity
Educational Status
Female
Fungi - pathogenicity
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - toxicity
Ozone - toxicity
Pollen - toxicity
Residence Characteristics - classification
Risk factors
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Statistical Distributions
Time Factors
Weather
Abstract
Social status influences asthma morbidity but the mechanisms are not well understood. To determine if sociodemographics influence the susceptibility to ambient aeroallergens, we determined the association between daily hospitalizations for asthma and daily concentrations of ambient pollens and molds in 10 large Canadian cities.
Daily time-series analyses were performed and results were adjusted for day of the week, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Results were then stratified by age, gender, and neighborhood family education and income.
There appeared to be age and gender interactions in the relation between aeroallergens and asthma. An increase in basidiomycetes equivalent to its mean value, about 300/m3, increased asthma admissions for younger males (under 13 years of age) by 9.3% (95% CI, 4.8%, 13.8%) vs. 4.2% (95% CI, - 0.1%, 8.5%) for older males. The reverse was true among females with increased effect in the older age group: 2.3% (95% CI, 1.2%, 5.8%) in those under 13 years vs. 7.1% (95% CI, 4.1%, 10.1%) for older females. Associations were seen between aeroallergens and asthma hospitalization in the lowest but not the highest education group.
Our results suggest that younger males and those within less educated families may be more vulnerable to aeroallergens as reflected by hospitalization for asthma.
PubMed ID
15723767 View in PubMed
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Do gender, education, and income modify the effect of air pollution gases on cardiac disease?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171253
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jan;48(1):89-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Sabit Cakmak
Robert E Dales
Stan Judek
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Canada.
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jan;48(1):89-94
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Disease Susceptibility
Education
Female
Heart Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Income
Male
Residence Characteristics
Risk
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Social Class
Statistics, nonparametric
Weather
Abstract
We sought to determine whether gender, education, and income influence the susceptibility to ambient air pollution.
We determined the association between daily cardiac hospitalizations and daily concentrations of gaseous air pollutants in 10 large Canadian cities using time-series analyses adjusted for day-of-the week, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity.
Percentage increases in hospitalization associated with an increase in air pollution equivalent to its mean value were statistically significant for ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide individually (P
PubMed ID
16404215 View in PubMed
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Effect of airborne allergens on emergency visits by children for conjunctivitis and rhinitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190822
Source
Lancet. 2002 Mar 16;359(9310):947-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-16-2002
Author
Sabit Cakmak
Robert E Dales
Richard T Burnett
Stan Judek
Frances Coates
Jeffrey R Brook
Source
Lancet. 2002 Mar 16;359(9310):947-8
Date
Mar-16-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Allergens - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Child
Conjunctivitis - epidemiology - etiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hospitals, Pediatric
Humans
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Pollen - adverse effects
Rhinitis - epidemiology - etiology
Spores, Fungal
Abstract
The effect of fungal spores and pollen grains on morbidity from childhood conjunctivitis and rhinitis is mostly unknown. We therefore studied the association between daily concentrations of these airborne allergens and daily emergency visits to a children hospital between 1993 and 1997. An increase of 551 basidiomycetes spores per m(3), or of 72 ragweed grains per m(3), was associated with an increase of about 10% in visits for conjunctivitis and rhinitis (p
PubMed ID
11918918 View in PubMed
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Gaseous air pollutants and hospitalization for respiratory disease in the neonatal period.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166520
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Nov;114(11):1751-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Robert E Dales
Sabit Cakmak
Marc Smith Doiron
Author Affiliation
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. rdales@ohri.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Nov;114(11):1751-4
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Canada
Carbon Monoxide - analysis - toxicity
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis - toxicity
Ozone - analysis - toxicity
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Current levels of ambient air pollution are associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population. To determine the influence of gaseous air pollutants on neonatal respiratory morbidity, we tested the association between daily respiratory hospitalizations and daily concentrations of ambient air pollution gases: ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, in 11 large Canadian cities.
Daily time-series analyses were employed and results were adjusted for day of the week, temperature, barometric pressure, and relative humidity.
The percent increases in hospitalization associated with an increase in air pollution equivalent to its interquartile range were 3.35 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.73-4.77] for O3, 2.85 (95% CI, 1.68-4.02) for NO2, 1.66 (95% CI, 0.63-2.69) for SO2, and 1.75 (95% CI, 0.48-3.02) for CO. The independent effect of all pollutants combined was 9.61% (95% CI, 4.52-14.7%).
Our results suggest that neonates are experiencing adverse effects of air pollution at current levels in Canada, and that accounts for a significant proportion of hospitalizations in this subgroup.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17107863 View in PubMed
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The influence of neighborhood traffic density on the respiratory health of elementary schoolchildren.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128327
Source
Environ Int. 2012 Feb;39(1):128-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Sabit Cakmak
Mamun Mahmud
Alice Grgicak-Mannion
Robert E Dales
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Research Section, Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science & Research Bureau, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9. sabit_cakmak@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Environ Int. 2012 Feb;39(1):128-32
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Asthma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Automobiles - statistics & numerical data
Child
Female
Health status
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Lung - physiopathology
Male
Nitric Oxide - analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Schools
Spirometry
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Vital Capacity
Abstract
Several studies have found that living near major roadways is associated with an increase in respiratory illness but few studies have measured the volume and type of traffic.
We investigated the relation between traffic volume and respiratory health of 2328 children 9 to 11 years old in the city of Windsor, Canada.
We identified the roadways within a 200 meter radius of the child's neighborhood using the latitude and longitude of the residential postal code. Traffic exposure was defined as the sum of the annual volume of vehicles on all of these roadways. Volume was calculated using sensors to detect passing vehicles (simple traffic counts), and by counts and direction of traffic at intersections (turning movement counts). Ventilatory lung function was measured by spirometry and airway inflammation by exhaled nitric oxide (eNO).
The odds ratio between an interquartile increase in truck turning movement counts and chest congestion was 1.20 (1.06-1.35). The percentage of predicted FVC declined 0.68%, (95% CI 1.32, 0.03) for an interquartile increase in simple traffic counts (33,787 vehicles daily). Among those with self-reported asthma, effect sizes were larger. Percentage predicted FEV(1) declined 1.84% (95% CI 0.07, 3.61) associated with an interquartile range increase in turning movement counts. No statistically significant change was detected between traffic measures and exhaled nitric oxide.
Our findings provide further support for the hypothesis that neighborhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution increases respiratory symptoms and reduces ventilatory function in children, especially those with self-reported asthma.
PubMed ID
22208751 View in PubMed
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Influence of outdoor aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181612
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Feb;113(2):303-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2004
Author
Robert E Dales
Sabit Cakmak
Stan Judek
Tom Dann
Frances Coates
Jeffrey R Brook
Richard T Burnett
Author Affiliation
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Feb;113(2):303-6
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis
Allergens - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Hospitalization - trends
Humans
Poaceae - adverse effects
Pollen - adverse effects
Seasons
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
Trees - adverse effects
Abstract
The risk of hospitalization for asthma caused by outdoor aeroallergens is largely unknown.
The objective of this study was to determine the association between changes in outdoor aeroallergens and hospitalizations for asthma from the Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast of Canada.
A daily time series analysis was done to test the association between daily changes in aeroallergens and daily changes in hospitalizations for asthma during a 7-year period between 1993 and 2000 in 10 of the largest cities in Canada. Results were adjusted for long-term trends, day of the week, climate, and air pollution.
A daily increase, equivalent to the mean value of each allergen, was associated with the following percentage increase in asthma hospitalizations: 3.3% (95% CI, 2.3 to 4.1) for basidiomycetes, 3.1% (95% CI, 2.8 to 5.7) for ascomycetes, 3.2% (95% CI, 1.6 to 4.8) for deuteromycetes, 3.0% (95% CI, 1.1 to 4.9) for weeds, 2.9% (95% CI, 0.9 to 5.0) for trees, and 2.0% (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8) for grasses. After accounting for the independent effects of trees and ozone, the combination of the 2 was associated with an additional 0.22% increase in admissions averaged across cities (P
Notes
Comment In: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Feb;115(2):426-7; author reply 42715696111
PubMed ID
14767446 View in PubMed
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17 records – page 1 of 2.