Chemical exposures are important determinants of respiratory health. The objective of the present study was to determine the association between the use of personal care products, which may contain respirable components, and lung function.
Using questionnaire and spirometry data collected during the Canadian Health Measures population survey, the association was tested between 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV(l)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) expressed as a percentage of predicted, and the frequency of use of personal care products categorized as eye makeup, fragrances, hairstyle products, lipstick, and scented body products.
Five thousand sixteen of the 5604 participants in the survey reported using at least one personal care product in the past 3 months. Among men and women, an interquartile increase in hairstyle products was associated with an approximate 2% decrease in both FEV(1) and FVC (P
A longitudinal study investigating personal exposures to PM(2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and carbon monoxide (CO) for cardiac compromised individuals was conducted in Toronto, Canada. The aim of the study was (1) to examine the distribution of exposures to PM(2.5), NO(2), and CO; and (2) to investigate the relationship between personal exposures and fixed-site ambient measurements of PM(2.5), NO(2), and CO. In total, 28 subjects with coronary artery disease wore the Rupprecht & Patashnick ChemPass Personal Sampling System one day a week for a maximum of 10 weeks. The mean (SD) personal exposures were 22 microg m(-3) (42), 14 p.p.b. (6), and 1.4 p.p.m (0.5) for PM(2.5), NO(2), and CO, respectively. PM(2.5) and CO personal exposures were greater than central fixed-site ambient measurements, while the reverse pattern was observed for NO(2). Ambient PM(2.5) and NO(2) were correlated with personal exposures to PM(2.5) and NO(2) with median Spearman's correlation coefficients of 0.69 and 0.57, respectively. The correlations between personal exposures and ambient measurements made closest to the subjects' homes or the average of all stations within the study were not stronger than the correlation between personal exposures and central fixed-site measurements. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) were correlated with personal exposures to NO(2) (median Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.43). This study suggests that central fixed-site measurements of PM(2.5) and NO(2) may be treated as surrogates for personal exposures to PM(2.5) and NO(2) in epidemiological studies, and that NO(2) is a potential confounder of PM(2.5).
The objectives of our study were to compare patient characteristics and severity of disease in obese and normal-weight-confirmed people with asthma and to explore reasons for misdiagnosis of asthma, including potential interactions with obesity.
We randomly selected patients with physician-diagnosed asthma from eight Canadian cities. Asthma diagnosis was confirmed via a sequential lung function testing algorithm. Logistic analysis was conducted to compare obese and normal-weight-confirmed people with asthma and to assess characteristics associated with misdiagnosis of asthma. Interaction with obesity was investigated.
Complete assessments were obtained on 496 subjects who reported physician-diagnosed asthma (242 obese and 254 normal-weight subjects); 346 had asthma confirmed with sequential lung testing, and in 150 subjects a diagnosis of asthma was ruled out. Obese subjects with asthma were significantly more likely to be men, have a history of hypertension and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and have a lower FEV(1) compared with normal-weight subjects with asthma. Older subjects, men, and subjects with higher FEV(1) were more likely to have received misdiagnoses of asthma. Obesity was not an independent predictor of misdiagnosis, however there was an interaction between obesity and urgent visits for respiratory symptoms. The odds ratio for receiving a misdiagnosis of asthma for obese individuals as compared with normal-weight individuals was 4.08 (95% CI, 1.23-13.5) for those with urgent visits in the past 12 months.
Obese people with asthma have lower lung function and more comorbidities compared with normal-weight people with asthma. Obese individuals who make urgent visits for respiratory symptoms are more likely to receive a misdiagnosis of asthma.
Clinical experiments demonstrate that the asthmatic response to an aeroallergen can be enhanced by prior exposure to an air pollutant.
We sought to compare the effects of ambient aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma between high and low air pollution days in 11 large Canadian cities.
Daily time-series analysis was used, and results were adjusted for day of the week, temperature, barometric pressure, and relative humidity.
The relative risk of admission for an interquartile increase in tree pollen levels was 1.124 (95% CI, 1.101-1.147) on days of lower values of fine particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM(2.5)) compared with 1.179 (95% CI, 1.149-1.21) on days of higher PM(2.5) values. Significant (P = .05) differences in the relative risks of admission between lower versus higher values of particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 µm in diameter were 1.149 (95% CI, 1.118-1.181) versus 1.210 (95% CI, 1.161-1.261) for ascomycetes, 1.112 (95% CI, 1.085-1.14) versus 1.302 (95% CI, 1.242-1.364) for basidiomycetes, 1.159 (95% CI, 1.125-1.195) versus 1.149 (95% CI, 1.129-1.169) for deuteromycetes, and 1.061 (95% CI, 1.016-1.107) versus 1.117 (95% CI, 1.092-1.143) for weeds.
We identified an association between aeroallergens and hospitalizations for asthma, which was enhanced on days of higher air pollution. Minimizing exposure to air pollution might reduce allergic exacerbations of asthma.
Social status influences asthma morbidity but the mechanisms are not well understood. To determine if sociodemographics influence the susceptibility to ambient aeroallergens, we determined the association between daily hospitalizations for asthma and daily concentrations of ambient pollens and molds in 10 large Canadian cities.
Daily time-series analyses were performed and results were adjusted for day of the week, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Results were then stratified by age, gender, and neighborhood family education and income.
There appeared to be age and gender interactions in the relation between aeroallergens and asthma. An increase in basidiomycetes equivalent to its mean value, about 300/m3, increased asthma admissions for younger males (under 13 years of age) by 9.3% (95% CI, 4.8%, 13.8%) vs. 4.2% (95% CI, - 0.1%, 8.5%) for older males. The reverse was true among females with increased effect in the older age group: 2.3% (95% CI, 1.2%, 5.8%) in those under 13 years vs. 7.1% (95% CI, 4.1%, 10.1%) for older females. Associations were seen between aeroallergens and asthma hospitalization in the lowest but not the highest education group.
Our results suggest that younger males and those within less educated families may be more vulnerable to aeroallergens as reflected by hospitalization for asthma.
We sought to determine whether gender, education, and income influence the susceptibility to ambient air pollution.
We determined the association between daily cardiac hospitalizations and daily concentrations of gaseous air pollutants in 10 large Canadian cities using time-series analyses adjusted for day-of-the week, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity.
Percentage increases in hospitalization associated with an increase in air pollution equivalent to its mean value were statistically significant for ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide individually (P
The effect of fungal spores and pollen grains on morbidity from childhood conjunctivitis and rhinitis is mostly unknown. We therefore studied the association between daily concentrations of these airborne allergens and daily emergency visits to a children hospital between 1993 and 1997. An increase of 551 basidiomycetes spores per m(3), or of 72 ragweed grains per m(3), was associated with an increase of about 10% in visits for conjunctivitis and rhinitis (p
Current levels of ambient air pollution are associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population. To determine the influence of gaseous air pollutants on neonatal respiratory morbidity, we tested the association between daily respiratory hospitalizations and daily concentrations of ambient air pollution gases: ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, in 11 large Canadian cities.
Daily time-series analyses were employed and results were adjusted for day of the week, temperature, barometric pressure, and relative humidity.
The percent increases in hospitalization associated with an increase in air pollution equivalent to its interquartile range were 3.35 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.73-4.77] for O3, 2.85 (95% CI, 1.68-4.02) for NO2, 1.66 (95% CI, 0.63-2.69) for SO2, and 1.75 (95% CI, 0.48-3.02) for CO. The independent effect of all pollutants combined was 9.61% (95% CI, 4.52-14.7%).
Our results suggest that neonates are experiencing adverse effects of air pollution at current levels in Canada, and that accounts for a significant proportion of hospitalizations in this subgroup.
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Air Health Effects Research Section, Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science & Research Bureau, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9. firstname.lastname@example.org
Several studies have found that living near major roadways is associated with an increase in respiratory illness but few studies have measured the volume and type of traffic.
We investigated the relation between traffic volume and respiratory health of 2328 children 9 to 11 years old in the city of Windsor, Canada.
We identified the roadways within a 200 meter radius of the child's neighborhood using the latitude and longitude of the residential postal code. Traffic exposure was defined as the sum of the annual volume of vehicles on all of these roadways. Volume was calculated using sensors to detect passing vehicles (simple traffic counts), and by counts and direction of traffic at intersections (turning movement counts). Ventilatory lung function was measured by spirometry and airway inflammation by exhaled nitric oxide (eNO).
The odds ratio between an interquartile increase in truck turning movement counts and chest congestion was 1.20 (1.06-1.35). The percentage of predicted FVC declined 0.68%, (95% CI 1.32, 0.03) for an interquartile increase in simple traffic counts (33,787 vehicles daily). Among those with self-reported asthma, effect sizes were larger. Percentage predicted FEV(1) declined 1.84% (95% CI 0.07, 3.61) associated with an interquartile range increase in turning movement counts. No statistically significant change was detected between traffic measures and exhaled nitric oxide.
Our findings provide further support for the hypothesis that neighborhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution increases respiratory symptoms and reduces ventilatory function in children, especially those with self-reported asthma.
The risk of hospitalization for asthma caused by outdoor aeroallergens is largely unknown.
The objective of this study was to determine the association between changes in outdoor aeroallergens and hospitalizations for asthma from the Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast of Canada.
A daily time series analysis was done to test the association between daily changes in aeroallergens and daily changes in hospitalizations for asthma during a 7-year period between 1993 and 2000 in 10 of the largest cities in Canada. Results were adjusted for long-term trends, day of the week, climate, and air pollution.
A daily increase, equivalent to the mean value of each allergen, was associated with the following percentage increase in asthma hospitalizations: 3.3% (95% CI, 2.3 to 4.1) for basidiomycetes, 3.1% (95% CI, 2.8 to 5.7) for ascomycetes, 3.2% (95% CI, 1.6 to 4.8) for deuteromycetes, 3.0% (95% CI, 1.1 to 4.9) for weeds, 2.9% (95% CI, 0.9 to 5.0) for trees, and 2.0% (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8) for grasses. After accounting for the independent effects of trees and ozone, the combination of the 2 was associated with an additional 0.22% increase in admissions averaged across cities (P