The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of the accumulation of major life events (MLE) in childhood and adulthood, in both the private and working domains, on risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, we aimed to test the possible interaction between childhood and adult MLE and to investigate modification of these associations by educational attainment.
The study was based on 4,761 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study free of diabetes at baseline and followed for 10 years. MLE were categorized as 0, 1, 2, 3 or more events. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education and family history of diabetes were used to estimate the association between MLE and T2DM.
In childhood, experiencing 3 or more MLE was associated with a 69% higher risk of developing T2DM (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.60, 3.27). The accumulation of MLE in adult private (p-trend = 0.016) and work life (p-trend = 0.049) was associated with risk of T2DM in a dose response manner. There was no evidence that experiencing MLE in both childhood and adult life was more strongly associated with T2DM than experiencing events at only one time point. There was some evidence that being simultaneously exposed to childhood MLE and short education (OR 2.28; 95% C.I. 1.45, 3.59) and work MLE and short education (OR 2.86; 95% C.I. 1.62, 5.03) was associated with higher risk of T2DM, as the joint effects were greater than the sum of their individual effects.
Findings from this study suggest that the accumulation of MLE in childhood, private adult life and work life, respectively, are risk factors for developing T2DM.
To present the Danish Occupational Social Class (DOSC) measurement as a measure of socioeconomic position (SEP) applicable in a late midlife population, and to analyze associations of this measure with three aging-related outcomes in midlife, adjusting for education.
Systematic coding procedures of the DOSC measurement were applied to 7,084 participants from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) survey. We examined the association of this measure of SEP with chronic conditions, self-rated health, and mobility in logistic regression analyses, adjusting for school education in the final analysis.
The measure of SEP showed a strong social gradient along the social classes in terms of prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, and mobility limitations. Adjusting for school education attenuated the association only to a minor degree.
The DOSC measure was associated with aging-related outcomes in a midlife Danish population, and is, thus, well suited for future epidemiological research on social inequalities in health and aging.
Social relations have been shown to be protective against ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but little is known about the impact of negative aspects of the social relations on IHD.
During a 6-year follow-up, the authors aimed to assess if negative aspects of social relations were associated with angina pectoris among 4573 middle-aged Danish men and women free of heart disease at baseline in 2000.
Nine per cent experienced onset of symptoms of angina pectoris. A higher degree of excessive demands or worries from the social relations was associated with increased risk of angina after adjustment for age, gender, social class, cohabitation status and depression in a dose-response manner. For example, experiencing excessive demands or worries always/often from different roles in the social relations was associated with an increased risk: partner OR=3.53 (1.68 to 7.43), children OR=2.19 (1.04 to 4.61), other family OR=1.91 (1.24 to 2.96). Except for frequent conflicts with the partner and neighbours, conflicts with the social relations was not a risk factor for angina. The authors found no interaction of negative aspects of social relations with gender, age, social class, cohabitation status or depression in terms of angina.
Excessive demands and serious worries from significant others seem to be important risk factors for development of angina pectoris.
Department of Dermato-Allergology, The Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Ledreborg Alle 40, 2, 2820, Gentofte, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a disorder characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to common airborne chemicals. Increasing evidence points to an association between IEI and symptoms of psychological distress. However, whether other risk factors influence this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events.
Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from the study have been published previously in this journal. The study included participants from a general population-based study who had reported symptoms of chemical sensitivities (n = 787) and two patient groups. The first patient group (n = 101) included individuals who had contacted the Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, and the second included individuals who had been diagnosed with environmental intolerance (n = 136). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted with four IEI-related domains, i.e., mucosal and CNS symptoms, chemical intolerances and social consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables.
Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for major life events and social support.
The results suggest that the association between IEI and psychological distress cannot be explained by known risk factors. More studies, including longitudinal studies, are needed to determine the role of psychological distress in the development and course of IEI.
Cites: Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2005;208(3):141-5115971853
PURPOSE: to investigate if the increased risk of disability onset among older people who live alone could possibly be moderated by either high social participation or by being satisfied with the social relations. DESIGN AND METHODS: logistic regression models were tested using two waves in a study population of 2,697 non-disabled older men and women from The Danish Longitudinal Study on Preventive Home Visits. RESULTS: living alone and low social participation were significant risk factors for later male disability onset. Not being satisfied with the social relations was significantly associated with onset of disability for both genders. Among men who lived alone low social participation was a significant predictor of disability onset [odds ratio, OR = 2.30 (1.00-5.29)]; for cohabiting men social participation was not associated with disability onset, [adjusted OR = 0.91 (0.49-1.71)]. Similar results were present concerning satisfaction with the social relations among men. There was no significant interaction for women. CONCLUSIONS: the study suggests that men who live alone can possibly alleviate their risk of disability onset by being socially active and by having access to satisfactory social relations. Women do not seem to benefit as much from cohabitation as men, although women who live alone and who are not satisfied with their social relations also constitute a significant risk category.
To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships.
We used data from the Metropolit cohort which includes 11,532 Danish men born in 1953 with information on father's socioeconomic position (SEP) at participant's birth and assessments of height, weight, cognitive performance, and education at age 20. In 2004, 6292 of these men participated in a follow-up survey on health and behaviour. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the association of father's social class with BMI among the 5117 men with complete information on all variables.
Between age 20 and 50, mean BMI increased from 21.4 to 26.1 kg/m(2), while the prevalence of overweight (BMI =25 kg/m(2)) increased from 8.1 to 57.8%. Men of fathers who were skilled or unskilled workers had higher odds of being overweight (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.13-1.53) or often obese (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.03-1.60) at age 50 years compared to those with fathers being self-employed, employee, or civil servants when adjusted for the other socially correlated indicators of impaired childhood development. In the linear regression analyses, mean BMI at both age 20 and 50 were around 0.3 kg/m(2) higher in men with fathers from working class compared to those self-employed, employee, or civil servants.
This study supports that among men, father's SEP influences the development of obesity later in adult life.
In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a random sample of people born in 1920, 1930 and 1940 with baseline in 1990. Survival time for all individuals were established during the next 8 years until May 1998. Multivariate Cox analysis stratified by age and gender showed that individuals living alone experienced a significantly increased mortality compared to individuals living with somebody HR = 1.42(1.04-1.95) adjusted for functional ability, self-rated health, having children, smoking, diet and physical activity. Similar analyses were performed for the variable living with/without a partner HR = 1.38(1.01-1.88) and marital status HR = 1.25(0.93-1.69), adjusted for the same covariates. Inclusion of the health behaviour variables--smoking, diet and physical activity--one by one to a model with functional ability, self-rated health and one of the three determinants (cohabitation status, living with/without partner, marital status) showed no effect on the association with mortality. Hereby, we found no evidence of an indirect effect of health behaviours on the association between living arrangements and mortality. In contrast to many previous studies, we found no significant gender and age differences in the association between living arrangement and mortality. We suggest that in future studies of social relations and mortality, cohabitation status is considered to replace marital status as this variable may account for more of the variation in mortality.
To investigate the effect of cohabitation status in older men and women on (a) onset of disability at 3- and 4.5-year follow-up and (b) changes in functional ability between 3- and 4.5-year follow-up, and to analyze whether this effect was mediated by social participation.
A total of 2,533 nondisabled older men and women enrolled in the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits constituted the study population. Data were collected by mailed questionnaires in 1998-1999, 2000, 2001-2002, and 2003.
Living alone significantly increased the risk of onset of disability (T3 OR = 1.60[1.06-2.43], T4 OR = 1.74[1.22-2.47]) and the risk of sustained poor functional ability (OR = 2.35[1.44-3.84]) among men, but not among single-living women. Social participation mediated only a small part of the effect of cohabitation status on functional ability.
Our results underline the importance of cohabitation/marriage for maintaining a high functional ability among older men.
The aim of the present article is to describe the face and content validity as well as reliability of the Copenhagen Social Relations Questionnaire (CSRQ).
The face and content validity test was based on focus group discussions and individual interviews with 31 informants. Another 94 men and women participated in an 8-day test-retest analysis.
Informants generally expressed that the questions and response categories were relevant and easy to understand. Themes on structure of social relations, social support, and negative aspects of social relations emerged clearly from the interviews. Two additional themes not covered by CSRQ on dynamics and reciprocity of social relations were identified.
CSRQ holds satisfactory face and content validity as well as reliability, and is suitable for measuring structure and function of social relations including the negative aspects among middle-aged individuals.