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Effects of Self-Management Groups for People with Dementia and Their Spouses--Randomized Controlled Trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275909
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 Apr;64(4):752-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Marja-Liisa Laakkonen
Hannu Kautiainen
Eeva Hölttä
Niina Savikko
Reijo S Tilvis
Timo E Strandberg
Kaisu H Pitkälä
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 Apr;64(4):752-60
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Comorbidity
Dementia - nursing - rehabilitation
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Quality of Life
Self-Help Groups - economics
Spouses
Surveys and Questionnaires
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To investigate the effect of self-management group rehabilitation for persons with dementia (PwD) and their spouses on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL), the cognition of the PwD, and the costs of health and social services.
A randomized controlled trial.
Primary care and memory clinics in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland.
PwD (N = 136) and their spouses (N = 136).
Couples were randomized to usual care or eight-session self-management groups for PwD and concurrently for their spouses. Sessions aim to enhance self-efficacy and problem-solving skills and to provide peer support.
The primary outcome measures were the HRQoL of PwD (measured using a generic, comprehensive (15-dimensional), self-administered instrument (15D)) and spouses (measured using the RAND-36) and the spousal Sense of Competence Questionnaire (SCQ). Secondary outcome measures were PwD cognition (Verbal Fluency (VF), Clock Drawing Test (CDT)) and costs of health and social services during 24 months.
At 3 months, the spouse physical component of the RAND-36 improved (mean change 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.5 to 2.4) for those undergoing the intervention and worsened for controls (mean change -2.0, 95% CI = -3.5 to -0.4) (P = .006 adjusted for age, sex, baseline value of the physical component of the RAND-36). There were no differences between the groups on the mental component of the RAND-36, the SCQ, or the 15D. At 9 months, PwD change in VF was -0.38 (95% CI = -1.03 to 0.27) in intervention group and -1.60 (95% CI = -2.26 to -0.94) for controls (P = .011 adjusted for age, sex, baseline MMSE score). CDT changes were similar to VF changes. Differences in incremental costs between the groups was -436 € per person per year (95% CI = -4,986 to 4,115) for PwD (P = .35 adjusted for age, CDR) and -896 € per person per year (95% CI = -3,657 to 1,864) for spouses (P = .51 adjusted for PwD age, CDR).
The intervention had beneficial effects on the HRQoL of spouses and the cognitive function of PwD without increasing total costs.
anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12611001173987.
PubMed ID
27060101 View in PubMed
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Effects of the Finnish Alzheimer disease exercise trial (FINALEX): a randomized controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114708
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 27;173(10):894-901
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-27-2013
Author
Kaisu H Pitkälä
Minna M Pöysti
Marja-Liisa Laakkonen
Reijo S Tilvis
Niina Savikko
Hannu Kautiainen
Timo E Strandberg
Author Affiliation
Unit of Primary Health Care, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland. kaisu.pitkala@helsinki.fi
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 27;173(10):894-901
Date
May-27-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - economics - therapy
Caregivers
Day Care - economics - organization & administration
Exercise Therapy - economics - methods - organization & administration
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
House Calls - economics
Humans
Independent living
Male
Physical Therapists
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Few rigorous clinical trials have investigated the effectiveness of exercise on the physical functioning of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).
To investigate the effects of intense and long-term exercise on the physical functioning and mobility of home-dwelling patients with AD and to explore its effects on the use and costs of health and social services.
A randomized controlled trial.
A total of 210 home-dwelling patients with AD living with their spousal caregiver.
The 3 trial arms included (1) group-based exercise (GE; 4-hour sessions with approximately 1-hour training) and (2) tailored home-based exercise (HE; 1-hour training), both twice a week for 1 year, and (3) a control group (CG) receiving the usual community care.
The Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Short Physical Performance Battery, and information on the use and costs of social and health care services.
All groups deteriorated in functioning during the year after randomization, but deterioration was significantly faster in the CG than in the HE or GE group at 6 (P = .003) and 12 (P = .015) months. The FIM changes at 12 months were -7.1 (95% CI, -3.7 to -10.5), -10.3 (95% CI, -6.7 to -13.9), and -14.4 (95% CI, -10.9 to -18.0) in the HE group, GE group, and CG, respectively. The HE and GE groups had significantly fewer falls than the CG during the follow-up year. The total costs of health and social services for the HE patient-caregiver dyads (in US dollars per dyad per year) were $25,112 (95% CI, $17,642 to $32,581) (P = .13 for comparison with the CG), $22,066 in the GE group ($15,931 to $28,199; P = .03 vs CG), and $34,121 ($24,559 to $43,681) in the CG.
An intensive and long-term exercise program had beneficial effects on the physical functioning of patients with AD without increasing the total costs of health and social services or causing any significant adverse effects.
anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12608000037303.
Notes
Comment In: Ann Intern Med. 2013 Aug 20;159(4):JC1024026274
Comment In: MMW Fortschr Med. 2013 Nov 7;155(19):3224475662
Comment In: JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 27;173(10):901-223588877
PubMed ID
23589097 View in PubMed
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Social contacts and their relationship to loneliness among aged people - a population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169541
Source
Gerontology. 2006;52(3):181-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Pirkko E Routasalo
Niina Savikko
Reijo S Tilvis
Timo E Strandberg
Kaisu H Pitkälä
Author Affiliation
Department of Nursing Science,University of Turku, Finland.
Source
Gerontology. 2006;52(3):181-7
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged - psychology
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Finland
Health status
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Loneliness
Male
Personal Satisfaction
Social Behavior
Social Isolation - psychology
Social Support
Abstract
Emotional loneliness and social isolation are major problems in old age. These concepts are interrelated and often used interchangeably, but few studies have investigated them simultaneously thus trying to clarify their relationship.
To describe the prevalence of loneliness among aged Finns and to study the relationship of loneliness with the frequency of social contacts, with older people's expectations and satisfaction of their human relationships. Especially, we wanted to clarify whether emotional loneliness is a separate concept from social isolation.
The data were collected with a postal questionnaire. Background information, feelings of loneliness, number of friends, frequency of contacts with children, grandchildren and friends, the expectations of frequency of contacts as well as satisfaction of the contacts were inquired. The questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 6,786 aged people (>74 years) in various urban and rural areas in Finland. We report here the results of community-dwelling respondents (n = 4,113).
More than one third of the respondents (39.4%) suffered from loneliness. Feeling of loneliness was not associated with the frequency of contacts with children and friends but rather with expectations and satisfaction of these contacts. The most powerful predictors of loneliness were living alone, depression, experienced poor understanding by the nearest, and unfulfilled expectations of contacts with friends.
Our findings support the view that emotional loneliness is a separate concept from social isolation. This has implications for practice. Interventions aiming at relieving loneliness should be focused on enabling an individual to reflect her own expectations and inner feelings of loneliness.
PubMed ID
16645299 View in PubMed
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