The majority of immigrants to Canada originate from the developing world, where the most rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus is occurring. We undertook a population-based study involving immigrants to Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the distribution of risk for diabetes in this population.
We used linked administrative health and immigration records to calculate age-specific and age-adjusted prevalence rates among men and women aged 20 years or older in 2005. We compared rates among 1,122,771 immigrants to Ontario by country and region of birth to rates among long-term residents of the province. We used logistic regression to identify and quantify risk factors for diabetes in the immigrant population.
After controlling for age, immigration category, level of education, level of income and time since arrival, we found that, as compared with immigrants from western Europe and North America, risk for diabetes was elevated among immigrants from South Asia (odds ratio [OR] for men 4.01, 95% CI 3.82-4.21; OR for women 3.22, 95% CI 3.07-3.37), Latin America and the Caribbean (OR for men 2.18, 95% CI 2.08-2.30; OR for women 2.40, 95% CI: 2.29-2.52), and sub-Saharan Africa (OR for men 2.31, 95% CI 2.17-2.45; OR for women 1.83, 95% CI 1.72-1.95). Increased risk became evident at an early age (35-49 years) and was equally high or higher among women as compared with men. Lower socio-economic status and greater time living in Canada were also associated with increased risk for diabetes.
Recent immigrants, particularly women and immigrants of South Asian and African origin, are at high risk for diabetes compared with long-term residents of Ontario. This risk becomes evident at an early age, suggesting that effective programs for prevention of diabetes should be developed and targeted to immigrants in all age groups.
Cites: Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985 Oct 19;291(6502):1081-43931804
Alcohol is a contributing cause of unintentional injuries, such as motor vehicle crashes. Prior research on the association between alcohol use and violent injury was limited to survey-based data, and the inclusion of cases from a single trauma centre, without adequate controls. Beyond these limitations was the inability of prior researchers to comprehensively capture most alcohol sales. In Ontario, most alcohol is sold through retail outlets run by the provincial government, and hospitals are financed under a provincial health care system. We assessed the risk of being hospitalized due to assault in association with retail alcohol sales across Ontario.
We performed a population-based case-crossover analysis of all persons aged 13 years and older hospitalized for assault in Ontario from 1 April 2002 to 1 December 2004. On the day prior to each assault case's hospitalization, the volume of alcohol sold at the store in closest proximity to the victim's home was compared to the volume of alcohol sold at the same store 7 d earlier. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated relative risk (RR) of assault per 1,000 l higher daily sales of alcohol. Of the 3,212 persons admitted to hospital for assault, nearly 25% were between the ages of 13 and 20 y, and 83% were male. A total of 1,150 assaults (36%) involved the use of a sharp or blunt weapon, and 1,532 (48%) arose during an unarmed brawl or fight. For every 1,000 l more of alcohol sold per store per day, the relative risk of being hospitalized for assault was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.26). The risk was accentuated for males (1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.33), youth aged 13 to 20 y (1.21, 95% CI 0.99-1.46), and those in urban areas (1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.35).
The risk of being a victim of serious assault increases with alcohol sales, especially among young urban men. Akin to reducing the risk of driving while impaired, consideration should be given to novel methods of preventing alcohol-related violence.
Cites: Annu Rev Public Health. 1998;19:359-789611624
Cites: Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998 Apr;22(2):237-429744184
Cites: J Trauma. 1999 Sep;47(3):568-7110498317
Cites: Stat Med. 2005 Jan 30;24(2):285-30015546133
To assess the use of cuffed peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) compared with uncuffed PICCs in children with respect to their ability to provide access until the end of therapy.
A retrospective review of PICCs inserted between January 2007 and December 2008 was conducted. Data collected from electronic records included patient age, referring service, clinical diagnosis, inserting team (pediatric interventional radiologists or neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] nurse-led PICC team), insertion site, dates of insertion and removal, reasons for removal, and need for a new catheter insertion. A separate subset analysis of the NICU population was performed. Primary outcome measured was the ability of the PICCs to provide access until the end of therapy.
Cuffed PICCs (n = 1,201) were significantly more likely to provide access until the end of therapy than uncuffed PICCs (n = 303) (P = .0002). Catheter removal before reaching the end of therapy with requirement of placement of a new PICC occurred in 26% (n = 311) of cuffed PICCs and 38% (n = 114) of uncuffed PICCs. Uncuffed PICCs had a significantly higher incidence of infections per 1,000 catheter days (P = .023), malposition (P = .023), and thrombus formation (P = .022). In the NICU subset analysis, cuffed PICCs had a higher chance of reaching end of therapy, but this was not statistically significant.
In this pediatric population, cuffed PICCs were more likely to provide access until the end of therapy. Cuffed PICCs were associated with lower rates of catheter infection, malposition, and thrombosis than uncuffed PICCs.
As a result of deinstitutionalization over the past half-century, police have become frontline mental health care workers. This study assessed five-year patterns of police calls for suicidal behavior in Toronto, Canada. Police responded to an average of 1,422 calls for suicidal behavior per year, 15 percent of which involved completed suicides (24 percent of male callers and 8 percent of female callers). Calls for suicidal behavior increased by 4 percent among males and 17 percent among females over the study period. The rate of completed suicides decreased by 22 percent among males and 31 percent among females. Compared with women, men were more likely to die from physical (as opposed to chemical) methods (22 percent and 43 percent, respectively). The study results highlight the importance of understanding changes in patterns and types of suicidal behavior to police training and preparedness.
Hgb A1c levels may be higher in persons without diabetes of lower socio-economic status (SES) but evidence about this association is limited; there is therefore uncertainty about the inclusion of SES in clinical decision support tools informing the provision and frequency of Hgb A1c tests to screen for diabetes. We studied the association between neighborhood-level SES and Hgb A1c in a primary care population without diabetes.
This is a retrospective study using data routinely collected in the electronic medical records (EMRs) of forty six community-based family physicians in Toronto, Ontario. We analysed records from 4,870 patients without diabetes, age 45 and over, with at least one clinical encounter between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2011 and one or more Hgb A1c report present in their chart during that time interval. Residential postal codes were used to assign neighborhood deprivation indices and income levels by quintiles. Covariates included elements known to be associated with an increase in the risk of incident diabetes: age, gender, family history of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose.
The difference in mean Hgb A1c between highest and lowest income quintiles was -0.04% (p = 0.005, 95% CI -0.07% to -0.01%), and between least deprived and most deprived was -0.05% (p = 0.003, 95% CI -0.09% to -0.02%) for material deprivation and 0.02% (p = 0.2, 95% CI -0.06% to 0.01%) for social deprivation. After adjustment for covariates, a marginally statistically significant difference in Hgb A1c between highest and lowest SES quintile (p = 0.04) remained in the material deprivation model, but not in the other models.
We found a small inverse relationship between Hgb A1c and the material aspects of SES; this was largely attenuated once we adjusted for diabetes risk factors, indicating that an independent contribution of SES to increasing Hgb A1c may be limited. This study does not support the inclusion of SES in clinical decision support tools that inform the use of Hgb A1c for diabetes screening.
Few studies have examined the impact of anti-smoking legislation on respiratory or cardiovascular conditions other than acute myocardial infarction. We studied rates of hospital admission attributable to three cardiovascular conditions (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke) and three respiratory conditions (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia or bronchitis) after the implementation of smoking bans.
We calculated crude rates of admission to hospital in Toronto, Ontario, from January 1996 (three years before the first phase of a smoking ban was implemented) to March 2006 (two years after the last phase was implemented. We used an autoregressive integrated moving-average (ARIMA) model to test for a relation between smoking bans and admission rates. We compared our results with similar data from two Ontario municipalities that did not have smoking bans and with conditions (acute cholecystitis, bowel obstruction and appendicitis) that are not known to be related to second-hand smoke.
Crude rates of admission to hospital because of cardiovascular conditions decreased by 39% (95% CI 38%-40%) and admissions because of respiratory conditions decreased by 33% (95% CI 32%-34%) during the ban period affecting restaurant settings. No consistent reductions in these rates were evident after smoking bans affecting other settings. No significant reductions were observed in control cities or for control conditions.
Our results serve to expand the list of health outcomes that may be ameliorated by smoking bans. Further research is needed to establish the types of settings in which smoking bans are most effective. Our results lend legitimacy to efforts to further reduce public exposure to tobacco smoke.
This article examines differences in birth outcomes by neighbourhood income and recent immigration for singleton live births in Toronto, Ontario.
The birth data were extracted from hospital discharge abstracts compiled by the Canadian Institute for Health Information.
A population-based cross-sectional study of 143,030 singleton live births to mothers residing in Toronto, Ontario from 1 April 1996 through 31 March 2001 was conducted. Neighbourhood income quintiles of births were constructed after ranking census tracts according to the proportion of their population below Statistics Canada's low-income cutoffs. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for the effects of neighbourhood income quintile and recent immigration on preterm birth, low birthweight and full-term low birthweight, adjusted for infant sex and maternal age.
Low neighbourhood income was associated with a moderately higher risk of preterm birth, low birthweight, and full-term low birthweight. The neighbourhood income gradient was less pronounced among recent immigrants compared with longer-term residents. Recent immigration was associated with a lower risk of preterm birth, but a higher risk of low birthweight and full-term low birthweight.
Canadian Aboriginal infants experience poor health compared with other Canadian infants. Breastfeeding protects against many infant infections that Canadian Aboriginals disproportionately experience. The objective of our research was to estimate the proportion of select infant infection and mortality outcomes that could be prevented if all Canadian Aboriginal infants were breastfed.
Between 5.1% and 10.6% of otitis media, 24.3% and 41.4% of gastrointestinal infection, 13.8% and 26.1% of hospitalizations from lower respiratory tract infections, and 12.9% and 24.6% of sudden infant death could be prevented in Aboriginal infants if they received any breastfeeding.
Interventions that promote, protect and support breastfeeding may prevent a substantial proportion of infection and mortality in Canadian Aboriginal infants.
To determine fourth-year Canadian pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine and whether that knowledge is associated with mandatory instruction in herbal medicine.
Standardized multiple-choice tests assessing students' herbal knowledge were distributed to all fourth-year BSc pharmacy students at 5 pharmacy schools in Canada.
The Quebec response rate was too low to include in the analysis. Herbal knowledge test scores were positively associated with having previously taken an herbal medicine class and completion of a pharmacy practicum. However, postsecondary education, age, and gender were not associated with herbal knowledge test scores. Students at the University of British Columbia had the highest score, followed by Alberta, Nova Scotia, and Ontario.
Pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine varies depending on the school attended and higher herbal knowledge test scores appear to be most closely related to mandatory herbal instruction.
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Cites: Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004 Aug 15;61(16):1707-1115540485
Cites: Am J Pharm Educ. 2006 Oct 15;70(5):10517149434
Cites: Am J Pharm Educ. 2006 Dec 15;70(6):13117332857
Cites: Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 1999;42:1-210697670
To describe cancer screening rates for cancer survivors and compare them with those for matched controls.
Population-based, retrospective study with individuals linked across administrative databases.
Survivors of breast (n = 11 219), colorectal (n = 4348), or endometrial (n = 3473) cancer, or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) (n = 2071) matched to general population controls. Survivors were those who had completed primary treatment and were on "well" follow-up. The study period was 4 years (1 to 5 years from the date of cancer diagnosis).
Never versus ever screened (in the 4-year study period) for breast cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), and cervical cancer and never versus ever received (during the study period) a periodic health examination; rates were compared between cancer survivors and controls. Random effects models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CIs.
Sixty-five percent of breast cancer survivors were never screened for CRC and 40% were never screened for cervical cancer. Approximately 50% of CRC survivors were never screened for breast or cervical cancer. Thirty-two percent of endometrial cancer survivors were never screened for breast cancer and 66% were never screened for CRC. Forty-four percent of HL survivors were never screened for breast cancer, 77% were never screened for CRC, and 32% were never screened for cervical cancer. Comparison with matched controls showed a mixed picture, with breast and endometrial cancer survivors more likely, and CRC and HL survivors less likely, than controls to be screened.
There is concern about the preventive care of cancer survivors despite frequent visits to both oncology specialists and family physicians during the "well" follow-up period.
Cites: J Clin Oncol. 2009 May 20;27(15):2489-9519332716
Cites: Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Nov;20(9):1697-70319688183