To determine the value of available questionnaires used for the diagnosis of testosterone deficiency syndromes (TDS) by correlating their ratings with a panel of hormonal determinations in a male population.
Participants completed the ADAM questionnaire and underwent biochemical evaluation at the local site. Assessments determined entry into Group A (symptomatic) or Group B (non-symptomatic). After stratification, subjects provided a morning sample of blood, completed the Aging Male Survey (AMS) and the newly developed Canadian Society for the Study of the Aging Male (CSAM-Q) questionnaires. Serum aliquots were analysed at a central lab for 8 putative markers commonly associated with symptomatic testosterone deficiency associated with aging: total testosterone (T); bioavailable T (BT); dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S); sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG); luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL); thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).
92 men were screened; of these 59 (mean age of 58+/-11 years) completed the study, 30 (51%) scored positively (mean 61.5 years) to the ADAM while 29 (49%) did not (mean 54.1 years). For the AMS the weight of the three domains (psychological, somato-vegetative and sexual) was significantly greater in Group A (p
To investigate the presence of cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 (CRISP1) in seminal plasma as a means of distinguishing between obstructive azoospermia (OA) and nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA).
Seminal plasma from normospermic donors (n = 45) and azoospermic donors (n = 80) was examined to determine CRISP1 levels. Neutral alpha-glucosidase (NAG) enzymatic activity was measured for comparison with CRISP1 levels.
Research unit of an academic medical center.
Normospermic and azoospermic donors from the clinical andrology laboratory of the centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec and from Mount Sinai Hospital.
Seminal CRISP1 measurement by Western blot analysis. Neutral alpha-glucosidase activity was evaluated by a photometric method.
Seminal plasma CRISP1 levels, NAG activity, cutoff value, sensitivity, and specificity.
All seminal plasma samples from normospermic and nonobstructive azoospermic donors were CRISP1 positive, whereas CRISP1 was absent or present at low levels in samples from patients with OA. A significant correlation between seminal CRISP1 levels and NAG activity was found in azoospermic semen samples. The cutoff point to distinguish between donors with NOA or OA was established at 0.655 (relative intensity). At this threshold, specificity was 85% and sensitivity was 92%.
Seminal CRISP1 combined with NAG activity can potentially distinguish between OA and NOA.
To determine whether DSM-III and DSM-III-R criteria for conduct disorder identify girls in the general population with early-onset, persistent, and pervasive antisocial behavior.
2,251 girls, representative of all girls entering kindergarten in Qúebec, were assessed using parent and teacher ratings of antisocial behavior; a subsample was then rated for the next 6 years (ages 7 to 12) by parent and teacher. At age 10 years, the girls who been rated as antisocial in kindergarten, along with a random sample of those not rated as antisocial, were assessed for DSM-III and DSM-III-R diagnoses of conduct and oppositional defiant disorder using a structured psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children) administered to the parent, teacher, and/or child (n = 381).
Of the girls with early-onset, persistent, and pervasive antisocial behavior, 3% met DSM-III-R criteria and 22% met DSM-III criteria for conduct disorder. Conduct disorder was not diagnosed at all in girls who had not been initially rated as antisocial in kindergarten. Lowering the threshold for a DSM-III-R conduct disorder diagnosis to two symptoms and adding the criterion of violation of rules increased the rate of diagnosis to 35% in the pervasively antisocial girls but only to 1% in girls who did not have persistent antisocial behavior.
DSM-III-R criteria for conduct disorder do not identify most preadolescent girls with early-onset, pervasive, and persistent antisocial behavior. Modifications to the DSM-III-R criteria resulted in increased sensitivity without a loss of specificity.
Factors associated with being a bovine-virus diarrhoea (BVD) seropositive dairy herd were studied in a case-control study of 314 dairy herds in the Møre and Romsdal County of Norway. Information was collected through a mailed questionnaire, and associations were modeled using conditional logistic regression after selecting variables by a best-subset procedure. Purchasing of animals, use of common pasture, herd-to-herd contact over pasture fences, purchasing cattle with insufficient health (about BVD) documentation, and not using dairy advisors were associated with higher risk. In addition, younger farmers were more likely to have a bovine-virus diarrhoea seropositive herd than older farmers. 'Other animal traffic', including use of common animal housing in the summer months and exchange of calves between farmers were also risk factors. Collectively, these factors could explain 51% of the seropositive herds.
Species expand towards higher latitudes in response to climate warming, but the pace of this expansion is related to the physiological capacity to resist cold stress. However, few studies exist that have quantified the level of inter-population local adaptation in marine species freeze tolerance, especially in the Arctic. We investigated the importance of cold adaptation and thermal window width towards high latitudes from the temperate to the Arctic region. We measured upper and lower lethal air temperatures (i.e. LT and LT50) in temperate and Arctic populations of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), and analysed weather data and membrane fatty acid compositions, following emersion simulations. Both populations had similar upper LT (~38 °C), but Arctic mussels survived 4°C colder air temperatures than temperate mussels (-13 vs.?-9°C, respectively), corresponding to an 8% increase in their thermal window. There were strong latitudinal relationships between thermal window width and local air temperatures, indicating Arctic mussels are highly adapted to the Arctic environment where the seasonal temperature span exceeds 60°C. Local adaptation and local habitat heterogeneity thus allow leading-edge M. edulis to inhabit high Arctic intertidal zones. This intraspecific pattern provides insight into the importance of accounting for cold adaptation in climate change, conservation and biogeographic studies.
Meeting the challenges of diverse cultures, numerous languages and great distances, the Northwest Territories discovered innovative ways to promote AIDS prevention. This article discusses obstacles to HIV prevention and techniques used to overcome them commonly found in health services for the NWT. For example, techniques for improved service delivery include reliance on decentralized services provided by regional health boards and Community Health Representatives. Further, the challenges posed by language diversity and cultural taboos against speaking openly about sexual matters have been partially overcome through the conversion of materials and concepts into aboriginal languages which are culturally appropriate. The article specifically discusses two AIDS education campaigns in which these techniques were utilized: namely, Health is a Community Affair Campaign (or the Door-to-Door Project) and local initiatives which hosted presentations by an Aboriginal person living with AIDS.
To determine the prevalence of positive tuberculin tests in a population of patients requiring long-term care in a hospital setting.
Prevalence study: to evaluate reaction to the test among patients who agreed to be included in the study.
The study took place in two units of the Enfant-Jésus hospital where patients are admitted for chronic care.
A total of 108 patients were eligible for the study; 56 agreed to take part. One patient died before the study was completed.
The tuberculin test consisted of an injection of PPD-T and reading the reaction 48 to 78 hours later. A reaction > 10 mm was considered significant. Patients with insignificant reactions were injected again 2 weeks later in order to evaluate positive response secondary to reactivation of the immune system (booster effect).
Indications of previous tuberculosis, risk factors for tuberculosis, immunosuppressive medication, length of stay in hospital, size of reaction.
Seventeen tuberculin tests were positive (30.9%); of these, six were positive after the second injection.
The prevalence of positive tuberculin tests was high in our elderly population; this finding is comparable to the findings of American studies.
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