Serum lipid concentrations, relative body weight, and smoking habits were assessed in a cohort of 1648 middle-aged Finnish men who were subsequently followed for seven years. Multivariate analysis showed that serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations and smoking were all independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. High serum triglyceride concentrations increased the risk of cardiovascular death only when they exceeded 1.7 mmol/l (150 mg/100 ml), but this occurred at all cholesterol and relative body weight levels. Obesity influenced death rates only in men with raised serum lipid levels, while smoking was associated with increased mortality when any combination of the other factors was present. Men who had raised triglyceride concentrations combined with smoking or obesity had the highest risk of cardiovascular death.
Seasonal variations in urinary calcium and oxalate excretion, serum 25(OH)D3 and albumin level were studied in 11 normo- and 11 hypercalciuric renal stone-formers, in 10 healthy subjects and in 14 long-stay hospital patients during one year. Serum albumin levels increased significantly during May--October in all four groups, whereas no significant changes occurred in serum calcium values when adjusted for differences in serum albumin concentration. Serum 25(OH)D3 level, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion were significantly higher during May--October than November--April in all except the long-stay hospital patients, whose corresponding values showed no seasonal changes and whose serum 25(OH)D3 levels as well as urinary calcium excretion were significantly lower than in the other three groups. The serum 25(OH)D3 level was significantly higher throughout the year in hypercalciuric than normocalciuric stone-formers. The hypercalciuric patients also passed more stones than the normocalciuric patients during a period of 9 years. There was a positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D3 and urinary calcium, between serum 25(OH)D3 and stone episodes and between urinary calcium and stone episodes. Because of this positive correlation, it might be useful to concentrate preventive therapy for recurrent renal stones to the light period only.