There is a lack of systematic nephrographic studies on epidemic nephritis (EN). We studied 10 patients with EN using [99Tcm]MAG3 gamma camera nephrography and followed up 9 of them 22-68 days later when they had clinically recovered. Variables for renal clearance of [99Tcm]MAG3 and the retention of radioactivity in the kidneys and blood were calculated. In all patients renal function was impaired acutely. There was marked reconstitution of renal function in the control studies. [99Tcm]MAG3 clearance was inversely related to serum creatinine. On visual inspection the nephrograms showed no focal changes. Nephrography was more sensitive than sonography at identifying renal impairment. [99Tcm]MAG3 nephrography is a sensitive method for identifying renal involvement and reconstitution of renal function in EN. It may be a valuable adjunct to the diagnostic arsenal, especially in nonendemic areas where EN occurs only sporadically and where there may be diagnostic uncertainty in patients presenting acutely with EN.
Identifying the genetic basis of adaptation to climate has long been a goal in evolutionary biology and has applications in agriculture. Adaptation to drought represents one important aspect of local adaptation, and drought is the major factor limiting agricultural yield. We examined local adaptation between Sweden and Italy Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, which show contrasting levels of water availability in their local environments. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling water use physiology traits and adaptive trait QTL (genomic regions where trait QTL and fitness QTL colocalize), we performed QTL mapping on 374F9 recombinant inbred lines in well-watered and terminal drought conditions. We found 72 QTL (32 in well-watered, 31 in drought, 9 for plasticity) across five water use physiology traits: d(13)C, rosette area, dry rosette weight, leaf water content and percent leaf nitrogen. Some of these genomic regions colocalize with fitness QTL and with other physiology QTL in defined hotspots. In addition, we found evidence of both constitutive and inducible water use physiology QTL. Finally, we identified highly divergent candidate genes, in silico. Our results suggest that many genes with minor effects may influence adaptation through water use physiology and that pleiotropic water use physiology QTL have fitness consequences.
An injury at work affects the professional athlete more than his nonathlete counterpart because it may portend the end of his playing career. The pertinent issues that concern the injured athlete are initial assessment of the injury, regulations governing treatment and rehabilitation of the injury, criteria for return-to-play status, determination of permanent impairment, and the athlete's rights. Permanent impairment determination procedures and compensation mechanisms are well established in each of the major professional leagues in the United States.