A clearer understanding of the etiological overlap between DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) and alcohol use (AU) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is needed. To our knowledge, no study has modeled the association between all 10 DSM-IV PDs and lifetime AU and AUD. The aim of the present study is to identify which PDs are most strongly associated with the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental risks of lifetime AU and AUD, and to determine if these associations are stable across time.
Participants were Norwegian twins assessed at two waves. At Wave 1, 2801 twins were assessed for all 10 DSM-IV PD criteria, lifetime AU, and DSM-IV AUD criteria. At Wave 2, six of the 10 PDs were again assessed along with AU and AUD among 2393 twins. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions were run. Significant predictors were further analyzed using bivariate twin Cholesky decompositions.
Borderline and antisocial PD criteria were the strongest predictors of AU and AUD across the two waves. Despite moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations, genetic variation in these PD criteria explained only 4% and 3% of the risks in AU, and 5% to 10% of the risks in AUD criteria, respectively. At Wave 2, these estimates increased to 8% and 23% for AU, and 17% and 33% for AUD.
Among a large Norwegian twin sample, borderline and antisocial PD criteria were the strongest predictors of the phenotypic and genotypic liability to AU and AUD. This effect remained consistent across time.
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 1994 May;151(5):707-158166312
First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show structural brain abnormalities. Whether the changes are progressive or not remain under debate, and the results from longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are mixed. We investigated if FEP patients showed a different pattern of regional brain structural change over a 1-year period compared with healthy controls, and if putative changes correlated with clinical characteristics and outcome.
MRIs of 79 FEP patients [SCID-I-verified diagnoses: schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder, or other psychoses, mean age 27.6 (s.d. = 7.7) years, 66% male] and 82 healthy controls [age 29.3 (s.d. = 7.2) years, 66% male] were acquired from the same 1.5 T scanner at baseline and 1-year follow-up as part of the Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study, Oslo, Norway. Scans were automatically processed with the longitudinal stream in FreeSurfer that creates an unbiased within-subject template image. General linear models were used to analyse longitudinal change in a wide range of subcortical volumes and detailed thickness and surface area estimates across the entire cortex, and associations with clinical characteristics.
FEP patients and controls did not differ significantly in annual percentage change in cortical thickness or area in any cortical region, or in any of the subcortical structures after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Within the FEP group, duration of untreated psychosis, age at illness onset, antipsychotic medication use and remission at follow-up were not related to longitudinal brain change.
We found no significant longitudinal brain changes over a 1-year period in FEP patients. Our results do not support early progressive brain changes in psychotic disorders.