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Air quality, mortality, and economic benefits of a smoke - free workplace law for non-smoking Ontario bar workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120430
Source
Indoor Air. 2013 Apr;23(2):93-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
J. Repace
B. Zhang
S J Bondy
N. Benowitz
R. Ferrence
Author Affiliation
Repace Associates Inc., Bowie 20720, MD, USA. repace@comcast.net
Source
Indoor Air. 2013 Apr;23(2):93-104
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Cotinine - urine
Female
Humans
Male
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Ontario
Risk assessment
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
We estimated the impact of a smoke-free workplace bylaw on non-smoking bar workers' health in Ontario, Canada. We measured bar workers' urine cotinine before (n = 99) and after (n = 91) a 2004 smoke-free workplace bylaw. Using pharmacokinetic and epidemiological models, we estimated workers' fine-particle (PM2.5 ) air pollution exposure and mortality risks from workplace secondhand smoke (SHS). workers' pre-law geometric mean cotinine was 10.3 ng/ml; post-law dose declined 70% to 3.10 ng/ml and reported work hours of exposure by 90%. Pre-law, 97% of workers' doses exceeded the 90th percentile for Canadians of working age. Pre-law-estimated 8-h average workplace PM2.5 exposure from SHS was 419 µg/m(3) or 'Very Poor' air quality, while outdoor PM2.5 levels averaged 7 µg/m(3) , 'Very Good' air quality by Canadian Air Quality Standards. We estimated that the bar workers' annual mortality rate from workplace SHS exposure was 102 deaths per 100000 persons. This was 2.4 times the occupational disease fatality rate for all Ontario workers. We estimated that half to two-thirds of the 10620 Ontario bar workers were non-smokers. Accordingly, Ontario's smoke-free law saved an estimated 5-7 non-smoking bar workers' lives annually, valued at CA $50 million to $68 million (US $49 million to $66 million).
PubMed ID
23006034 View in PubMed
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The carcinogenic and toxic effects of tobacco smoke: are women particularly susceptible?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195184
Source
J Gend Specif Med. 1999 Nov-Dec;2(6):45-51
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. Pope
M J Ashley
R. Ferrence
Author Affiliation
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Gend Specif Med. 1999 Nov-Dec;2(6):45-51
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Female
Health Care Costs - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Sex Characteristics
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Women's health
Abstract
Smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death and disability in Canadian women. Lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, and stroke account for two-thirds or more of the smoking-attributable deaths in women. Lung cancer now exceeds breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women, and both incidence and mortality rates continue to climb. Strong evidence suggests that for the same number of cigarettes smoked, women are more susceptible than men to the carcinogenic effects on their lungs. Evidence also is growing that lung function in women is more adversely affected by smoking and that smoking may be a stronger risk factor for myocardial infarction in women than it is in men. More research into the mechanisms underlying these gender-related susceptibilities is needed. Policies and programs to prevent girls from starting to smoke and to facilitate quitting in women of all ages must be public health priorities.
PubMed ID
11279871 View in PubMed
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Commentary. monitoring tobacco use in canada: the need for a surveillance strategy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197128
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2000;21(2):50-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
R. Ferrence
T. Stephens
Author Affiliation
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2S1, Canada. roberta.ferrence@utoronto.ca
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2000;21(2):50-3
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Humans
Population Surveillance - methods
Reproducibility of Results
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - epidemiology
Abstract
Smoking behaviour has been monitored nationally through population surveys for 35 years in Canada, but these surveys have not been as consistent or rigorous as the magnitude of the smoking problem demands. Inconsistent methods and irregular survey intervals are just two of the characteristics that have made it difficult to know exactly how smoking is changing. Further, an absence of routine data on tobacco control policies (other than the price of cigarettes) has hampered understanding of the determinants of changing prevalence. The advent of two survey series--Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (CTUMS) and Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) promises to change this situation for the better. We suggest that both are critical elements of a national smoking surveillance system and that, with a commitment to CTUMS in particular, Health Canada could set a new international standard for surveillance.
PubMed ID
11007654 View in PubMed
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Dimensions underlying legislator support for tobacco control policies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185177
Source
Tob Control. 2003 Jun;12(2):133-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
N A de Guia
J E Cohen
M J Ashley
R. Ferrence
J. Rehm
D T Studlar
D. Northrup
Author Affiliation
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ndeguia@cihi.ca
Source
Tob Control. 2003 Jun;12(2):133-9
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Multivariate Analysis
Politics
Public Opinion
Smoking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Tobacco Industry - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
To propose and test a new classification system for characterising legislator support for various tobacco control policies.
Cross sectional study.
Federal and provincial legislators in Canada serving as of October 1996 who participated in the Canadian Legislator Study (n = 553; response rate 54%).
A three factor model (Voters, Tobacco industry, Other interest groups) that assigns nine tobacco control policies according to legislators' hypothesised perceptions of which group is more directly affected by these policies.
Based on confirmatory factor analysis, the proposed model had an acceptable fit and showed construct validity. Multivariate analysis indicated that three of the predictors (believing that the government has a role in health promotion, being a non-smoker, and knowledge that there are more tobacco than alcohol caused deaths) were associated with all three factor scales. Several variables were associated with two of the three scales. Some were unique to each scale.
Based on our analyses, legislator support for tobacco control policies can be grouped according to our a priori factor model. The information gained from this work can help advocates understand how legislators think about different types of tobacco control policies. This could lead to the development of more effective advocacy strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12773721 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with the adoption of a smoking ban in Quebec households.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150287
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2009;29(3):128-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
E. Ouedraogo
F. Turcotte
M J Ashley
J M Brewster
R. Ferrence
Author Affiliation
Département Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, QC, Canada. eva.ouedraogo@ssss.gouv.qc.ca
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2009;29(3):128-35
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Analysis of Variance
British Columbia
Child
Child Welfare - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Health promotion
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Nova Scotia
Ontario
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The home represents an important source of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for non-smokers, including children, who live with smokers. Our goal is to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the adoption of smoking bans in "smoker households" in Quebec. Selected associations are compared with three other Canadian provinces (Ontario, British Columbia and Nova Scotia). This is a cross-sectional study involving 2648 respondents. Logistic regression analysis is employed. Few smoker households in Quebec (21%) have a ban on smoking; the presence of a non-smoker is strongly linked to the existence of such a ban; the presence of a child under the age of 6 is less strongly associated with the adoption of a ban in Quebec than in the other provinces, and the presence of an adolescent shows no association whatsoever. In addition to the child health benefits of household smoking bans, greater emphasis should be placed on the impact that such bans can have on children's future smoking behaviour. One option from a health promotion standpoint might be to organize a campaign aimed at non-smokers who live with smokers, in order to urge them to be less tolerant of environmental tobacco smoke.
PubMed ID
19527571 View in PubMed
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Interactions between smokers and non-smokers in public places: a qualitative study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200238
Source
Can J Public Health. 1999 Sep-Oct;90(5):330-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
B D Poland
L. Stockton
M J Ashley
L. Pederson
J. Cohen
R. Ferrence
S. Bull
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario. blake.poland@utoronto.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 1999 Sep-Oct;90(5):330-3
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Smoking - psychology
Social Behavior
Abstract
Few studies have employed a qualitative approach to better understand how both smokers and non-smokers experience and make sense of no-smoking restrictions in their daily lives. We describe qualitative research involving an examination of self-reported interpersonal interactions between smokers and non-smokers in public places regarding exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Five focus group discussions and twenty individual in-depth interviews were conducted with smokers and non-smokers in the Metropolitan Toronto region as a complement to a quantitative survey of the adult population of Ontario. Strategies used by non-smokers in responding to ETS exposures included verbal confrontations, non-verbal cues, use of a third party, and moving away. The perceived consequences of such actions, as described by both smokers and non-smokers, are discussed, together with implications for tobacco control policy and practice.
PubMed ID
10570578 View in PubMed
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Is nicotine dependence related to smokers' support for restrictions on smoking?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193683
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2001 Aug;3(3):257-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
C. Lacchetti
J. Cohen
M J Ashley
R. Ferrence
S. Bull
M. de Groh
L. Pederson
Author Affiliation
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, Canada.
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2001 Aug;3(3):257-60
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Attitude
Behavior, addictive - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Female
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Health Promotion - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Severity of Illness Index
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Tobacco Use Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
To examine the relationship between nicotine dependence and attitudes, predicted behaviours and support regarding restrictions on smoking.
Population-based, computer-assisted, telephone survey of adults in Ontario, Canada using a two-stage stratified sampling design; 1764 interviews were completed (65% response rate) yielding 424 (24%) cigarette smokers, of whom 354 (83%) smoked daily. The Heaviness of Smoking Index was used as a measure of nicotine dependence.
Attitudes toward smoking restrictions, predicted compliance with more restrictions, and support for total smoking bans.
Attitudes favorable to smoking restrictions tended to decrease with increased nicotine dependence, but the associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for demographic variables. Predicted compliance with more restrictions on smoking decreased with higher levels of dependence, as did support for a total ban on smoking in restaurants, workplaces, bingo halls, and hockey arenas. Support for smoking bans in food courts, family fast food restaurants, and bars and taverns did not vary significantly with level of nicotine dependence.
Level of nicotine dependence is associated with intended behaviors and support for smoking restrictions in some settings. These results have implications for tobacco control programs and policies.
PubMed ID
11506769 View in PubMed
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Knowledge about tobacco and attitudes toward tobacco control: how different are smokers and nonsmokers?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196544
Source
Can J Public Health. 2000 Sep-Oct;91(5):376-80
Publication Type
Article
Author
M J Ashley
J. Cohen
S. Bull
R. Ferrence
B. Poland
L. Pederson
J. Gao
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, ON. maryjane.ashley@utoronto.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2000 Sep-Oct;91(5):376-80
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Data Collection - statistics & numerical data
Drug and Narcotic Control
Female
Guideline Adherence
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Policy
Humans
Male
Ontario
Smoking - prevention & control - psychology
Tobacco Industry - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Using data from a 1996 random-digit-dialing computer-assisted telephone survey of Ontario adults, 424 smokers and 1,340 nonsmokers were compared regarding knowledge about the health effects of tobacco use, attitudes toward restrictions on smoking and other tobacco control measures, and predictions of compliance with more restrictions. The response rate was 65%. Smokers were less knowledgeable than nonsmokers. Smokers were also less likely to support bans on smoking in specific locations, but majorities of both groups supported some restriction in most settings. Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to predict that most smokers would comply with more restrictions, and more than three quarters indicated that they, themselves, would comply. Sizable proportions of both groups, especially smokers, failed to appreciate the effectiveness of taxation in reducing smoking. Support for other control measures also differed by smoking status. Both knowledge and smoking status were independently associated with support for more restrictions and other tobacco control policy measures.
PubMed ID
11089293 View in PubMed
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Measuring the incidence of self-injury: some methodological and design considerations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature255032
Source
Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1973 Jan;43(1):142-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1973

The Ontario ban on smoking on school property: issues and challenges in enforcement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204614
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 Jul-Aug;89(4):229-32
Publication Type
Article
Author
M J Ashley
D A Northrup
R. Ferrence
Author Affiliation
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, University of Toronto.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 Jul-Aug;89(4):229-32
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Health Plan Implementation
Humans
Ontario
Schools - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Smoking - prevention & control
Social Control, Formal
Abstract
We document implementation and enforcement activities undertaken by high schools and health units with regard to the 1994 ban on smoking on school property in Ontario. Telephone interviews were conducted in the early summer of 1996 with 213 high school administrators and 38 tobacco enforcement personnel in health units. While some schools are unclear about enforcement responsibility, most are making efforts to enforce the ban, including warning and suspending students. Some school administrators (30%) suggest the reinstitution of designated smoking areas on school property. One quarter of health units had not made enforcement visits in schools in the 1995-96 school year and a minority accounted for most of the warnings and tickets issued to students. While most tobacco enforcement officers perceive that schools support the ban, they report some problems in obtaining cooperation in enforcement. However, only 11% suggest returning to designated smoking areas on school property.
PubMed ID
9735514 View in PubMed
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19 records – page 1 of 2.