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Common genetic influences on BMI and age at menarche.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214205
Source
Hum Biol. 1995 Oct;67(5):739-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1995
Author
J. Kaprio
A. Rimpelä
T. Winter
R J Viken
M. Rimpelä
R J Rose
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Hum Biol. 1995 Oct;67(5):739-53
Date
Oct-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Aging - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weight
Child
Confidence Intervals
Female
Finland
Humans
Menarche - genetics - physiology
Reproducibility of Results
Twins - genetics
Abstract
Genetic influences on variability of body weight and onset of menarche are well known. To investigate the genetic and environmental contributions to the association of body weight with onset of menarche, we studied Finnish twins from consecutive birth cohorts (the FinnTwin16 study) ascertained from the national population registry, which identifies nearly 100% of all living twins. Baseline questionnaires were mailed to the twins within 60 days of their sixteenth birthday and later to older sibs of the twins. Pairwise response rates (approximately 85% across gender and zygosity) and 30 months of data collection yielded results from 1283 twin pairs. The questionnaires included a survey of health habits and attitudes, a symptom checklist, MMPI personality scales, and a survey of relationships with parents, peers, and the co-twin. Age at menarche was reported by 468 monozygotic (MZ) girls, 378 girls from like-sex dizygotic (FDZ) pairs, 434 girls from opposite-sex (OSDZ) pairs, and 141 older female sibs of the twins. The one-month test-retest reliability of age at menarche in an independent sample (N = 136) of 16-year-olds from a national survey was 0.96. Girls from OSDZ pairs had a significantly higher mean age at menarche (13.33 yr) than FDZ girls (13.13 yr) (difference, 0.20 yr; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.35). The MZ correlation for age at menarche was 0.75, the DZ correlation was 0.31, and the sib-twin correlation was 0.32. A bivariate twin analysis of age at menarche and body mass index (wt/ht2) indicated that 37% of the variance in age at menarche can be attributed to additive genetic effects, 37% to dominance effects, and 26% to unique environmental effects. The correlation between additive genetic effects on age at menarche and body mass index was 0.57, indicating a substantial proportion of genetic effects in common.
PubMed ID
8543288 View in PubMed
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Distribution and heritability of BMI in Finnish adolescents aged 16y and 17y: a study of 4884 twins and 2509 singletons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202883
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999 Feb;23(2):107-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
K H Pietiläinen
J. Kaprio
A. Rissanen
T. Winter
A. Rimpelä
R J Viken
R J Rose
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999 Feb;23(2):107-15
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body Height - genetics
Body mass index
Body Weight - genetics
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - genetics
Prevalence
Sex Characteristics
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
1) To estimate the heritability of body mass index (BMI) in twins aged 16y and 17y, with a special emphasis on gender-specific genetic effects and 2) to compare heights, weights, BMIs, and prevalences of 'overweight' (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) in these twins and in singletons aged 16.5y.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological questionnaire study of twins at ages 16y and 17 y, and cross-sectional study of singletons at age 16.5y.
BMI (kg/m2) was calculated from self-reported heights (m) and weights (kg).
4884 twins (2299 boys, 2585 girls) at baseline (age 16 y), 4401 twins (2002 boys, 2399 girls) at age 17 y, and 2509 singletons (1147 boys, 1362 girls) at age 16.5 y. Both twin and singleton samples are nationally representative.
At the ages of 16y and 17y, genetic effects accounted for over 80% of the interindividual variation of BMI. The correlations for male-female pairs were smaller than for either male-male or female-female dizygotic pairs. The singletons, especially the boys, had a higher BMI than the twins. Nine percent of singleton boys, but only 4-6% of twin boys and twin and singleton girls were 'overweight' (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2).
Among adolescents, genetic factors play a significant role in the causes of variation in BMI. The genetic modelling suggested that the sets of genes explaining the variation of BMI may differ in males and females. At this age, the twin boys, but not girls, seem to be leaner than singletons. Further follow-up will indicate whether these small differences disappear, and if not, what implications it might have to the generalizability of twin studies.
PubMed ID
10078843 View in PubMed
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Drinking or abstaining at age 14? A genetic epidemiological study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192532
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 Nov;25(11):1594-604
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
Author
R J Rose
D M Dick
R J Viken
L. Pulkkinen
J. Kaprio
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. rose@indiana.edu
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 Nov;25(11):1594-604
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcohol Drinking - genetics
Alcoholism - epidemiology - genetics
Child
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Questionnaires
Abstract
Regular drinking by age 14 years is a significant risk factor for alcoholism, and genetically informative data suggest that whether a young adolescent abstains or drinks is largely attributable to familial (or other shared) environmental factors.
Three consecutive birth cohorts of Finnish twins, enrolled into a longitudinal study at age 11 to 12 years, completed a follow-up questionnaire within 3 months of their 14th birthdays. The sample included 1380 twin sisters and 1330 twin brothers at age 14, and at that age, 35.4% reported using alcohol. Genetic analyses (model-fitting of twin pair data) and epidemiological analyses (logistical regressions of data from individual twins) were conducted to examine predictive factors of drinking versus abstinence at age 14.
Polychoric correlations were substantial across all same-sex twin pairs but were lower for brother-sister twins, suggesting significant influences of common environments, with some sex-specific effects. Common environmental effects were equivalent in male and female adolescents and accounted for 76% of the total variation in abstinence/drinking. Logistical regression analyses among 2206 individual twins with complete data on risk-relevant measures at both baseline and follow-up identified significant predictors of drinking or abstaining at age 14, including female sex, twin sibling of the opposite sex, accelerated pubertal development, and the twins' assessments, made at age 12, of reduced parental monitoring and a less supportive home atmosphere; drinking at age 14 was also predicted by behaviors rated by the twins' classroom teachers 2 years earlier, increasing with rated behavioral problems but decreasing with rated emotional problems.
Our results show that environmental factors shared by twin siblings account for most of the variance in abstaining or drinking at age 14. We identify predictors of drinking in the adolescent twins' home environments and in their dispositional behaviors, sibling interactions, and pubertal timing.
PubMed ID
11707634 View in PubMed
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Exploring gene-environment interactions: socioregional moderation of alcohol use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192372
Source
J Abnorm Psychol. 2001 Nov;110(4):625-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
Author
D M Dick
R J Rose
R J Viken
J. Kaprio
M. Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Indiana University at Bloomington, 47405, USA.
Source
J Abnorm Psychol. 2001 Nov;110(4):625-32
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - genetics
Environment
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Population Surveillance
Twins - genetics
Abstract
Examples of gene-environment interaction in human behavioral data are relatively rare; those that exist have used simple, dichotomous measures of the environment. The authors describe a model that allows for the specification of more continuous, more realistic variations in environments as moderators of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. Using data from a population-based Finnish twin study, the authors document strong moderating effects of socioregional environments on genetic and environmental influences on adolescent alcohol use, with nearly a five-fold difference in the magnitude of genetic effects between environmental extremes. The incorporation of specific environmental measures into genetically informative designs should prove to be a powerful method for better understanding the nature of gene-environment interaction and its contribution to the etiology of behavioral variation.
PubMed ID
11727951 View in PubMed
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Familial and socioregional environmental effects on abstinence from alcohol at age sixteen.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202260
Source
J Stud Alcohol Suppl. 1999 Mar;13:63-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
R J Rose
J. Kaprio
T. Winter
M. Koskenvuo
R J Viken
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405-1301, USA.
Source
J Stud Alcohol Suppl. 1999 Mar;13:63-74
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - ethnology - psychology
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology - ethnology
Humans
Male
Parent-Child Relations
Parents - psychology
Sibling Relations
Temperance - psychology
Abstract
This study identifies, in genetically informative data, familial and socioregional environmental influences on abstinence from alcohol at age 16.
Data are from FinnTwin 16, a population-based study of five consecutive birth cohorts of Finnish twins (N = 5,747 twin individuals), yielding 2,711 pairs of known zygosity. Measures of alcohol use, embedded into a health-habits questionnaire, were taken from earlier epidemiological research with nontwin Finnish adolescents. The questionnaire was administered sequentially to all twins as they reached age 16. Separate questionnaires, including measures of alcohol use and screening questions for alcohol problems, were received from 5,243 of the twins' parents.
Abstinence from alcohol to age 16 exhibits very significant familial aggregation, largely due to nongenetic influences. Abstinence rates are influenced by socioregional variation, sibling interaction effects and parental drinking patterns. Sibling and parental influences are greater in some regional environments than in others: the relative likelihood that a twin abstains, given that the co-twin does, or that both parents do, is shown to be modulated by socioregional variation.
Environmental contexts affect the likelihood of maintaining abstinence from alcohol to midadolescence, and socioregional variation modulates influences of siblings and parents. The results illustrate how genetically informative data can inform prevention research by identifying target variables for intervention efforts.
PubMed ID
10225489 View in PubMed
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Genetic origins of the association between verbal ability and alcohol dependence symptoms in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143025
Source
Psychol Med. 2011 Mar;41(3):641-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
A. Latvala
A. Tuulio-Henriksson
D M Dick
E. Vuoksimaa
R J Viken
J. Suvisaari
J. Kaprio
R J Rose
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. antti.latvala@thl.fi
Source
Psychol Med. 2011 Mar;41(3):641-51
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcoholism - genetics - psychology
Chi-Square Distribution
Cognition Disorders - complications - genetics - psychology
Female
Finland
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Verbal Behavior
Wechsler Scales
Young Adult
Abstract
Cognitive deficits in alcohol dependence (AD) have been observed, poorer verbal ability being among the most consistent findings. Genetic factors influence both cognitive ability and AD, but whether these influences overlap is not known.
A subset of 602 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from FinnTwin16, a population-based study of Finnish twins, was used to study the associations of verbal ability with DSM-III-R diagnosis and symptoms of AD, the maximum number of drinks consumed in a 24-h period, and the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) scores. These twins, most of them selected for within-pair discordance or concordance for their RAPI scores at age 18.5 years, were studied with neuropsychological tests and interviewed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) in young adulthood (mean age 26.2 years, range 23-30 years).
All alcohol problem measures were associated with lower scores on the Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised (WAIS-R), a measure of verbal ability. In bivariate genetic models, Vocabulary and the alcohol problem measures had moderate heritabilities (0.54-0.72), and their covariation could be explained by correlated genetic influences (genetic correlations -0.20 to -0.31).
Poorer verbal ability and AD have partly overlapping biological etiology. The genetic and environmental influences on the development of cognitive abilities, alcohol problems and risk factors for AD should be studied further with prospective longitudinal designs.
PubMed ID
20529418 View in PubMed
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Individual differences in adolescent religiosity in Finland: familial effects are modified by sex and region of residence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200907
Source
Twin Res. 1999 Jun;2(2):108-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1999
Author
T. Winter
J. Kaprio
R J Viken
S. Karvonen
R J Rose
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Twin Res. 1999 Jun;2(2):108-14
Date
Jun-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Attitude
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Environment
Female
Finland
Genetics, Behavioral
Humans
Male
Religion
Reproducibility of Results
Residence Characteristics
Rural Population
Sex Factors
Twins - genetics
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Urban Population
Abstract
Data from 16-year-old Finnish twin pairs were used to estimate familial effects on religiosity and the modification of those effects by sex and residential region. The sample of 2265 twin boys and 2521 twin girls formed 779 monozygotic and 1614 dizygotic pairs, 785 of the same sex and 829 of opposite sex. We compared religiosity scores of twins living in more rural and traditional northern Finland with those living in the more urban and secular southern region. Girls had higher religiosity scores than did boys, and twins living in northern Finland had higher religiosity scores than those resident in southern Finland. Correlations for monozygotic twins were slightly higher than those for dizygotic twins, and covariance modeling found modest heritability of religiosity [11% (95% CI 0-24) for girls; 22% (95% CI 6-38) for boys], and substantial shared environmental effects [60% (95% CI 49-69) and 45% (95% CI 31-57)] among girls and boys, respectively. The correlation between shared environmental effects in boys and girls was estimated to be 0.84 (95% CI 0.73-0.99). In analyses distinguishing region of residence, girls living in southern Finland were found to have significantly higher unshared environmental effects than girls in northern Finland, while boys living in the urban south appeared to have lower shared environmental effects, and higher additive genetic effects, than boys living in the rural north.
PubMed ID
10480745 View in PubMed
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Longitudinal analyses of the determinants of drinking and of drinking to intoxication in adolescent twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198201
Source
Behav Genet. 1999 Nov;29(6):455-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1999
Author
R J Viken
J. Kaprio
M. Koskenvuo
R J Rose
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA.
Source
Behav Genet. 1999 Nov;29(6):455-61
Date
Nov-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcohol Drinking - genetics
Alcoholic Intoxication - genetics
Cohort Studies
Diseases in Twins - genetics
Female
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Abstract
Genetic and environmental determinants of self-reported alcohol consumption were investigated in a sample of 2513 twin pairs who were first assessed at age 16 and were followed-up at age 17. At age 16, 77% of the sample was drinking, and 65% of drinkers reported drinking to intoxication. Both drinking and drinking to intoxication increased at the 1-year follow-up. Model fitting indicated that most of the variance in drinking initiation was due to shared environmental effects but that shared environmental effects were less important, and additive genetic effects were more important, in explaining frequency of drinking among subjects who had already initiated drinking. Similarly, shared environmental effects explained most of the variation in initiation of drinking to intoxication but were less important in explaining frequency of intoxication among subjects who had already initiated drinking to intoxication. The magnitude of genetic and environmental estimates for males and females did not differ significantly, but it was clear that either different genetic factors or different shared environmental factors were influencing males and females. For all drinking variables studied, shared environmental effects decreased from age 16 to age 17, while additive genetic effects increased from age 16 to age 17.
PubMed ID
10857250 View in PubMed
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Pubertal timing and substance use: associations between and within families across late adolescence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198996
Source
Dev Psychol. 2000 Mar;36(2):180-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2000
Author
D M Dick
R J Rose
R J Viken
J. Kaprio
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Indiana University Bloomington 47405-1301, USA.
Source
Dev Psychol. 2000 Mar;36(2):180-9
Date
Mar-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - physiology - psychology
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - psychology
Cohort Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Menarche - physiology - psychology
Questionnaires
Sampling Studies
Smoking - psychology
Substance-Related Disorders - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
In the present study, between-family analyses of data from adolescent twin girls offer new evidence that early menarche is associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of smoking and drinking. The role of personality factors and peer relationships in that association was investigated, and little support was found for their involvement. Novel within-family analyses replicating associations of substance use with pubertal timing in contrasts of twin sisters selected for extreme discordance for age at menarche are reported. Within-family replications demonstrated that the association of pubertal timing with substance use cannot be explained solely by between-family confounds. Within-family analyses demonstrated contextual modulation of the influence of pubertal timing: Its impact on drinking frequency is apparent only among girls in urban settings. Sibling comparisons illustrate a promising analytic tool for studying diverse developmental outcomes.
PubMed ID
10749075 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.