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A descriptive study of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) cases reported in Ontario, 1990-1994.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204609
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 Jul-Aug;89(4):253-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
P. Michel
J B Wilson
S W Martin
R C Clarke
S A McEwen
C L Gyles
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College (OVC), University of Guelph.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 Jul-Aug;89(4):253-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bacterial Toxins
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks
Enterotoxins
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Escherichia coli O157
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
Characteristics of VTEC cases identified through routine surveillance in Ontario between 1990 and 1994 are described. Information was extracted from the Reportable Disease Information System (RDIS) of Ontario and was evaluated for its completeness and internal validity. A total of 2,441 VTEC cases were identified for the five-year study period corresponding to an average annual rate of 4.8 cases per 100,000. Sixteen deaths were recorded. Bloody diarrhea was reported for 546 patients (40%) and was the most frequently reported symptom. For most cases, the home was recorded as the likely risk setting (36%). Food was incriminated as the source of infection for more than 36% of cases. Nine (69%) of the thirteen data fields compulsory for transmission to the Ontario Ministry of Health had less than 10% of combined missing and unspecified values. Fields describing risk factors had greater than 56% of entries missing or unspecified.
PubMed ID
9735519 View in PubMed
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Estimation of the under-reporting rate for the surveillance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cases in Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196783
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2000 Aug;125(1):35-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
P. Michel
J B Wilson
S W Martin
R C Clarke
S A McEwen
C L Gyles
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Canada.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2000 Aug;125(1):35-45
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology
Escherichia coli O157 - isolation & purification
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Models, Statistical
Ontario - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Abstract
Two models estimating the proportion of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cases not reported in the Ontario notifiable diseases surveillance system are described. The first model is a linear series of adjustments in which the total number of reported cases is corrected by successive underreporting coefficients. The structure of the second model is based on a relative difference in the proportion of E. coli O157:H7 cases which are hospitalized between the surveillance database and the underlying population. Based on this analysis, the rate of under-reporting of symptomatic cases of E. coli O157:H7 infection in Ontario ranges from 78 to 88% corresponding to a ratio of 1 reported case for approximately 4-8 symptomatic cases missed by the surveillance system. This study highlights the need to increase awareness among public health workers of the potential biases that may exist in the interpretation of routine surveillance data.
PubMed ID
11057957 View in PubMed
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Evidence of direct transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection between calves and a human--Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218169
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1994 May 15;20(9):73-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-1994
Author
S A Renwick
J B Wilson
R C Clarke
H. Lior
A. Borczyck
J S Spika
K. Rahn
K. McFadden
A. Brouwer
A. Copps
Author Affiliation
Food Production and Inspection Branch, Health of Animals Laboratory, Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1994 May 15;20(9):73-5
Date
May-15-1994
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cattle
Cattle Diseases - transmission
Child, Preschool
Escherichia coli Infections - transmission - veterinary
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Ontario
Zoonoses
PubMed ID
8038753 View in PubMed
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The organisation of federal Veterinary Services in Canada: the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174865
Source
Rev Sci Tech. 2003 Aug;22(2):409-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
B R Evans
R L Doering
R C Clarke
C. Ranger
Author Affiliation
Animal Health Division, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 59 Camelot Drive, Nepean, Ontario K1A 0Y9, Canada.
Source
Rev Sci Tech. 2003 Aug;22(2):409-21
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Welfare
Animals
Canada
Consumer Product Safety
Food Inspection
Government Agencies
Humans
Logistic Models
Veterinary Medicine - organization & administration - standards
Abstract
The organisational design of a national Veterinary Service is critical to the overall quality and integrity of its animal health and veterinary public health infrastructure. It is well recognised that the diversity of political, economic and social situations which exist in and between countries dictates that no one model of organisational structure can be applied to all circumstances. In Canada, a re-organisation of the approach of the federal government to food inspection in 1997 resulted in the transfer of the veterinary administration to a newly created agency called the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). The authors provide a short background on the impetus for the creation of the CFIA and an overview of its organisational structure and responsibilities in animal and veterinary public health and food safety. Also included are the logic models that were developed for the federal Veterinary Services as part of their quality and performance management framework. Integrating all federally mandated food inspection systems under the CFIA has had concrete benefits in clarifying roles and responsibilities, reducing overlap and duplication of programme functions, improving service delivery and facilitating federal-provincial collaboration. Moreover, the strength of the organisation lies in the ability of the Canadian Veterinary Services to adhere to the fundamental principles of quality which are recommended by the OIE (World organisation for animal health) for the evaluation of Veterinary Services. No single organisational structure can guarantee a highly effective or competent Veterinary Service. Common challenges exist that may or may not be addressed in whole or in part by the organisational structure. The challenges highlighted in this paper provide further thoughts on the management of shared jurisdiction, meeting public health objectives, balancing science and political accountability, and defining the role and jurisdiction of veterinarians.
PubMed ID
15884578 View in PubMed
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Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy cattle and the dairy farm environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207327
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1997 Oct;119(2):251-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1997
Author
K. Rahn
S A Renwick
R P Johnson
J B Wilson
R C Clarke
D. Alves
S. McEwen
H. Lior
J. Spika
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Health of Animals Laboratory, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1997 Oct;119(2):251-9
Date
Oct-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bird Diseases - microbiology
Cat Diseases - microbiology
Cats
Cattle
Cattle Diseases - microbiology - transmission
Dairying
Disease Reservoirs
Disease Vectors
Escherichia coli Infections - microbiology - transmission - veterinary
Escherichia coli O157
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Ontario
Rodent Diseases - microbiology
Abstract
The persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle and the farm environment was investigated on eight Ontario dairy farms positive for E. coli O157:H7 in a longitudinal study commenced one year previously. Faecal samples from cows, calves, humans, cats, rodents, wild birds, a composite fly sample and numerous composite and individual environmental samples were cultured and tested for verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). VTEC isolates were serotyped and E. coli O157:H7 isolates were phage typed. E. coli O157:H7 phage type 34 was isolated from one calf on each of two farms. The same phage type had been isolated on one of these farms 12 months earlier. Most E. coli O157:H7-positive animals and farms became culture-negative within 2 and 3 months, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was not isolated from any environmental samples, although evidence of VTEC was found in composite samples from calf feeders (19.1%), calf barn surfaces (18%), cow feeders (14.9%), flies (12.5%), cow barn surfaces (11.3%), and individual milk filters (12.5%). VTEC belonging to 21 non-O157 serotypes were isolated from 24 cows (8.2%), 21 calves (18.3%), 2 cow feeder samples (3.0%), and 1 calf feeder sample (4.8%). Shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by infected dairy cattle appears to be transient and persistence of E. coli O157:H7 was not demonstrated from the farm environment sites tested.
PubMed ID
9363025 View in PubMed
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Temporal and geographical distributions of reported cases of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201902
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Apr;122(2):193-200
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1999
Author
P. Michel
J B Wilson
S W Martin
R C Clarke
S A McEwen
C L Gyles
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Canada.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Apr;122(2):193-200
Date
Apr-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Cattle
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - transmission
Escherichia coli O157
Geography
Humans
Incidence
Information Systems
Ontario - epidemiology
Population Density
Population Surveillance
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Rural Population
Seasons
Abstract
The distribution of 3001 cases of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) reported in the Province of Ontario, Canada, were examined to describe the magnitude of this condition geographically and to evaluate the spatial relationship between livestock density and human VTEC incidence using a Geographical Information System. Incidence of VTEC cases had a marked seasonal pattern with peaks in July. Areas with a relatively high incidence of VTEC cases were situated predominantly in areas of mixed agriculture. Spatial models indicated that cattle density had a positive and significant association with VTEC incidence of reported cases (P = 0.000). An elevated risk of VTEC infection in a rural population could be associated with living in areas with high cattle density. Results of this study suggested that the importance of contact with cattle and the consumption of contaminated well water or locally produced food products may have been previously underestimated as risk factors for this condition.
PubMed ID
10355782 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.