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Birth weight, physical morbidity, and mortality: a population-based sibling-comparison study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105548
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Mar 1;179(5):550-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2014
Author
Quetzal A Class
Martin E Rickert
Paul Lichtenstein
Brian M D'Onofrio
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Mar 1;179(5):550-8
Date
Mar-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth weight
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Male
Morbidity
Mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Associations between low birth weight (=2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the "developmental origins of health and disease" hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity.
PubMed ID
24355331 View in PubMed
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Current parental depression and offspring perceived self-competence: a quasi-experimental examination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123496
Source
Behav Genet. 2012 Sep;42(5):787-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Quetzal A Class
Brian M D'Onofrio
Amber L Singh
Jody M Ganiban
E L Spotts
Paul Lichtenstein
David Reiss
Jenae M Neiderhiser
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. qaclass@indiana.edu
Source
Behav Genet. 2012 Sep;42(5):787-97
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Depression - epidemiology - psychology
Family
Female
Humans
Intergenerational Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Parents - psychology
Self Concept
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Young Adult
Abstract
A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52 %) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22692226 View in PubMed
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A Genetically Informed Study of the Associations Between Maternal Age at Childbearing and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282531
Source
Behav Genet. 2016 May;46(3):431-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Ayesha C Sujan
Martin E Rickert
Quetzal A Class
Claire A Coyne
Paul Lichtenstein
Catarina Almqvist
Henrik Larsson
Arvid Sjölander
Benjamin B Lahey
Carol van Hulle
Irwin Waldman
A Sara Öberg
Brian M D'Onofrio
Source
Behav Genet. 2016 May;46(3):431-56
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth weight
Demography
Female
Genetic Association Studies
Gestational Age
Humans
Maternal Age
Middle Aged
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - genetics
Sweden
United States
Young Adult
Abstract
We examined associations of maternal age at childbearing (MAC) with gestational age and fetal growth (i.e., birth weight adjusting for gestational age), using two genetically informed designs (cousin and sibling comparisons) and data from two cohorts, a population-based Swedish sample and a nationally representative United States sample. We also conducted sensitivity analyses to test limitations of the designs. The findings were consistent across samples and suggested that, associations observed in the population between younger MAC and shorter gestational age were confounded by shared familial factors; however, associations of advanced MAC with shorter gestational age remained robust after accounting for shared familial factors. In contrast to the gestational age findings, neither early nor advanced MAC was associated with lower fetal growth after accounting for shared familial factors. Given certain assumptions, these findings provide support for a causal association between advanced MAC and shorter gestational age. The results also suggest that there are not causal associations between early MAC and shorter gestational age, between early MAC and lower fetal growth, and between advanced MAC and lower fetal growth.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26404627 View in PubMed
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Maternal stress and infant mortality: the importance of the preconception period.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114071
Source
Psychol Sci. 2013 Jul 1;24(7):1309-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2013
Author
Quetzal A Class
Ali S Khashan
Paul Lichtenstein
Niklas Långström
Brian M D'Onofrio
Author Affiliation
1Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 East 10th St., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. qaclass@indiana.edu
Source
Psychol Sci. 2013 Jul 1;24(7):1309-16
Date
Jul-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Logistic Models
Male
Mothers - psychology
Preconception Care
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Although preconception and prenatal maternal stress are associated with adverse outcomes in birth and childhood, their relation to infant mortality remains uncertain. We used logistic regression to study infant mortality risk following maternal stress within a population-based sample of infants born in Sweden between 1973 and 2008 (N = 3,055,361). Preconception (6-0 months before conception) and prenatal (between conception and birth) stress were defined as death of a first-degree relative of the mother. A total of 20,651 offspring were exposed to preconception stress, 26,731 offspring were exposed to prenatal stress, and 8,398 cases of infant mortality were identified. Preconception stress increased the risk of infant mortality independently of measured covariates, and this association was timing specific and robust across low-risk groups. Prenatal stress did not increase risk of infant mortality. These results suggest that the period immediately before conception may be a sensitive developmental period with ramifications for infant mortality risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23653129 View in PubMed
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Mediators of the association between parental severe mental illness and offspring neurodevelopmental problems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257348
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2014 Sep;24(9):629-34, 634.e1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Brittany M McCoy
Martin E Rickert
Quetzal A Class
Henrik Larsson
Paul Lichtenstein
Brian M D'Onofrio
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington.
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2014 Sep;24(9):629-34, 634.e1
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Child of Impaired Parents
Fathers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - complications - epidemiology - psychology
Mothers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Premature Birth
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Parental severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with an increased risk of offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a study to examine the extent to which risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age mediated this association.
We obtained data on offspring born 1992-2001 in Sweden (n = 870,017) through the linkage of multiple population-based registers. We used logistic and Cox regression to assess the associations between parental SMI, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and offspring ASD and ADHD, as well as tested whether adverse pregnancy outcomes served as mediators.
After controlling for measured covariates, maternal and paternal SMI were associated with an increased risk for preterm birth, low birth weight, and gestational age, and for offspring ASD and ADHD. These pregnancy outcomes were also associated with an increased risk of ASD and ADHD. We found that pregnancy outcomes did not mediate the association between parental SMI and offspring ASD and ADHD, as there was no substantial change in magnitude of the risk estimates after controlling for pregnancy outcomes.
Parental SMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes appear to be independent risk factors for offspring ASD and ADHD.
PubMed ID
25037304 View in PubMed
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Outcome-dependent associations between short interpregnancy interval and offspring psychological and educational problems: a population-based quasi-experimental study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299921
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2018 08 01; 47(4):1159-1168
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-01-2018
Author
Quetzal A Class
Martin E Rickert
Henrik Larsson
Anna Sara Öberg
Ayesha C Sujan
Catarina Almqvist
Paul Lichtenstein
Brian M D'Onofrio
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2018 08 01; 47(4):1159-1168
Date
08-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Academic Failure
Adolescent
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Autism Spectrum Disorder - epidemiology
Birth Intervals - statistics & numerical data
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Models, Psychological
Pregnancy
Psychopathology
Registries
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Causal interpretation of associations between short interpregnancy interval (the duration from the preceeding birth to the conception of the next-born index child) and the offspring's psychological and educational problems may be influenced by a failure to account for unmeasured confounding.
Using population-based Swedish data from 1973-2009, we estimated the association between interpregnancy interval and outcomes [autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), severe mental illness, suicide attempt, criminality, substance-use problem and failing grades] while controlling for measured covariates. We then used cousin comparisons, post-birth intervals (the interval between the second- and third-born siblings to predict second-born outcomes) and sibling comparisons to assess the influence of unmeasured confounding. We included an exploratory analysis of long interpregnancy interval.
Interpregnancy intervals of 0-5 and 6-11?months were associated with higher odds of outcomes in cohort analyses. Magnitudes of association were attenuated following adjustment for measured covariates. Associations were eliminated for ADHD, severe mental illness and failing grades, but maintained magnitude for ASD, suicide attempt, criminality and substance-use problem in cousin comparisons. Post-birth interpregnancy interval and sibling comparisons suggested some familial confounding. Associations did not persist across models of long interpregnancy interval.
Attenuation of the association in cousin comparisons and comparable post-birth interval associations suggests that familial genetic or environmental confounding accounts for a majority of the association for ADHD, severe mental illness and failing grades. Modest associations appear independently of covariates for ASD, suicide attempt, criminality and substance-use problem. Post-birth analyses and sibling comparisons, however, show some confounding in these associations.
PubMed ID
29566153 View in PubMed
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Preconception Maternal Bereavement and Infant and Childhood Mortality: A Danish Population-Based Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274681
Source
Psychosom Med. 2015 Oct;77(8):863-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Quetzal A Class
Preben B Mortensen
Tine B Henriksen
Christina Dalman
Brian M D'Onofrio
Ali S Khashan
Source
Psychosom Med. 2015 Oct;77(8):863-9
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bereavement
Child Mortality
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mothers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk
Time Factors
Abstract
Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, although these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood.
Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979 to 2009 (N = 1,865,454), we analyzed neonatal (0-28 days), postneonatal infant (29-364 days), and early childhood (1-5 years) mortality after maternal bereavement in the preconception (6-0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first-degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regressions that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors.
We identified 6541 (0.004%) neonates, 3538 (0.002%) postneonates, and 2132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 and 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87, 95% confidence interval = 1.53-2.30) and postneonatal infant mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-2.02). Associations were timing specific (6 months before pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality; however, this may reflect relatively low statistical power.
Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately before pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality.
Notes
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Cites: Science. 2004 Sep 17;305(5691):1733-615375258
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PubMed ID
26374948 View in PubMed
Less detail

Preterm birth and mortality and morbidity: a population-based quasi-experimental study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107040
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;70(11):1231-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Brian M D'Onofrio
Quetzal A Class
Martin E Rickert
Henrik Larsson
Niklas Långström
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University-Bloomington.
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;70(11):1231-40
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mental Disorders - complications - mortality - psychology
Premature Birth - mortality - psychology
Registries
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. However, previous studies have been unable to rigorously examine whether confounding factors cause these associations rather than the harmful effects of being born preterm.
To estimate the extent to which the associations between early gestational age and offspring mortality and morbidity are the result of confounding factors by using a quasi-experimental design, the sibling-comparison approach, and by controlling for statistical covariates that varied within families.
A population-based cohort study, combining Swedish registries to identify all individuals born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008 (3,300,708 offspring of 1,736,735 mothers) and link them with multiple outcomes.
Offspring mortality (during infancy and throughout young adulthood) and psychiatric (psychotic or bipolar disorder, autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, suicide attempts, substance use, and criminality), academic (failing grades and educational attainment), and social (partnering, parenthood, low income, and social welfare benefits) outcomes through 2009.
In the population, there was a dose-response relationship between early gestation and the outcome measures. For example, extreme preterm birth (23-27 weeks of gestation) was associated with infant mortality (odds ratio,?288.1; 95% CI,?271.7-305.5), autism (hazard ratio [HR],?3.2; 95% CI,?2.6-4.0), low educational attainment (HR,?1.7; 1.5-2.0), and social welfare benefits (HR,?1.3; 1.2-1.5) compared with offspring born at term. The associations between early gestation and mortality and psychiatric morbidity generally were robust when comparing differentially exposed siblings and controlling for statistical covariates, whereas the associations with academic and some social problems were greatly or completely attenuated in the fixed-effects models.
The mechanisms responsible for the associations between preterm birth and mortality and morbidity are outcome-specific. Associations between preterm birth and mortality and psychiatric morbidity are largely independent of shared familial confounds and measured covariates, consistent with a causal inference. However, some associations, particularly predicting suicide attempt, educational attainment, and social welfare benefits, are the result of confounding factors. The findings emphasize the importance of both reducing preterm birth and providing wraparound services to all siblings in families with an offspring born preterm.
PubMed ID
24068297 View in PubMed
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Timing of prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a population study of 2.6 million pregnancies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137048
Source
Psychosom Med. 2011 Apr;73(3):234-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Quetzal A Class
Paul Lichtenstein
Niklas Långström
Brian M D'Onofrio
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405. qaclass@indiana.edu
Source
Psychosom Med. 2011 Apr;73(3):234-41
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Life Change Events
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Pregnancy Trimester, Third - physiology
Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A - physiology
Premature Birth - physiopathology
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
To identify the impact of timing of prenatal stress exposure on offspring risk for shortened gestational age, preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA), using a population-based sample.
Swedish longitudinal population registries were linked to study all individuals born in Sweden from 1973 to 2004. Prenatal maternal stress exposure was defined as death of the father of the child or first-degree relative of the mother. Using linear and logistic regression, timing of stress exposure was examined across pregnancy, by month, and by novel periods created based on month of stress exposure findings.
A total of 2,618,777 live-born, singleton infants without congenital anomalies were included; 32,286 were exposed to prenatal maternal stress. Examining associations between stress exposure and outcome by the month revealed that risk increases midgestation, particularly after months 5 and 6. Combining months 1 to 4, 5 and 6, and 7 to 9 as potential periods of differing vulnerability, it was found that stress during period 2 (months 5 and 6) was associated with the greatest risk for shortened gestational age (-0.52 days, standard error = 0.15, p = .0006), PTB (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.42), LBW (OR, 1.38; 99% CI, 1.19-1.61), and SGA (OR, 1.25; 99% CI, 1.05-1.49).
Risk for shortened GA, PTB, LBW, and SGA are greater post stress exposure during the 5th and/or 6th month of pregnancy. It may be beneficial to refine future analyses to these months. Possible mechanisms include alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated stress-responsive molecular regulators.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21321257 View in PubMed
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