To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists.
A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65-95 years who were interviewed about alcohol drinking habits and underwent a clinical oral and dental examination. Multiple regression analyses were applied for studying the association between total weekly alcohol consumption, beverage-specific alcohol consumption, beverage preference (defined as the highest intake of one beverage type compared with two other types), and the number of remaining teeth (= 20 versus >20 remaining teeth).
The odds ratio (OR) of having a low number of teeth decreased with the total intake of alcohol in women, with ORs for a low number of teeth of 0.40 [95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.76] in women drinking 1-14 drinks per week and 0.34 (95 percent CI 0.16-0.74) in women with an intake of more than 14 drinks per week compared with abstainers. Similar relations could also be obtained for type-specific alcohol intake of wine and for wine and spirits preference among women. Men who preferred beer showed a decreased risk for a low number of teeth compared with men with other alcohol preferences.
In this study, alcohol consumption, wine drinking, and wine and spirits preference among women were associated with a higher number of teeth compared with abstainers. Among men, those who preferred beer also had a higher number of teeth.
The authors conducted a study to determine one-year coronal and root caries increments in patients newly diagnosed as having Alzheimer disease (AD), other dementia (OD) or no dementia.
The authors recruited patients from two hospital memory clinics in Copenhagen. The oral examination included an assessment of dental status and dental caries. The authors used a structured questionnaire to obtain information regarding demographic, social and functional variables.
In the baseline study, 106 dentate patients participated. Of these, 77 completed the follow-up study. The participants' mean age was 81.9 years at baseline and 82.5 years at follow-up. At baseline, 87 (82 percent) of 106 participants had dementia and at follow-up, 64 (83 percent) of 77 participants had dementia. The mean number of decayed tooth surfaces was significantly higher at follow-up than at baseline for all participants, and the number was highest for the OD group. The one-year adjusted caries and filling increments (ADJCIs) were high for participants with and without dementia but were highest for participants in the AD and OD groups. Baseline risk factors for developing elevated coronal and root ADJCIs included having caries, having many teeth and being older than 80 years.
Elderly people referred to a memory clinic were at an elevated risk of developing high levels of coronal and root-surface caries during the first year after referral, and those with a dementia diagnosis other than AD appeared to be at a particularly high risk of developing multiple carious lesions during the first year after diagnosis.
These findings underscore the importance of addressing the oral health needs of elderly people suspected of having experienced cognitive decline.
In order to study the way old age influence oral health, the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort (COHS) has been established.
To describe the design, measurement procedures, and baseline values for COHS including spatial distribution of restorations and dental caries as well as reasons for non-participation.
Seven hundred and eighty-three individuals aged 65 years or older, from a total of 1918 invited elderly people, underwent an interview regarding oral health-related behaviour and a clinical oral examination including measurement of unstimulated whole saliva flow rate.
Twelve percent of the COHS was edentulous. The number of dental restorations was higher for women compared to men; however, men had more caries than women. Coronal caries was most frequent on mesial and distal surfaces and on the maxillary incisors and canines; root caries was most frequent on labial surfaces and evenly distributed within the dentition. Only 41% of all invited elderly people accepted the invitation, with old age and poor health being the primary reasons for non-participation.
The baseline values for COHS show that a substantial proportion of the participants had retained a natural dentition and that dental caries was prevalent with the anterior maxillary teeth being most affected.
This article reviews access to and financing of dental care for aging populations in selected nations in Europe. Old age per se does not seem to be a major factor in determining the use of dental services. Dentition status, on the other hand, is a major determinant of dental attendance. In addition to perceived need, a variety of social and behavioral factors as well as general health factors have been identified as determinants of dental service use. Frail and functionally dependent elderly have special difficulties in accessing dental care; private dental practitioners are hesitant to provide dental care to these patients. One reason may be that the fee for treating these patients is too low, considering high dental office expenses. Another reason may be problems related to management of medically compromised patients. This raises an important question: does inadequate training in geriatric dentistry discourage dentists from seeking opportunities to treat geriatric patients? Overall, the availability of dental services, the organization of the dental health care delivery system, and price subsidy for dental treatment are important factors influencing access to dental care among older people in Europe as well as in the United States.
OBJECTIVES: The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, an area in central Stockholm. This paper reports findings regarding the prevalence and severity of dental caries among the dentate participants. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Caries examinations were conducted on eligible persons participating in the Kungsholmen Project, an ongoing, longitudinal study of older adults. SETTING: Caries examinations were carried out between 1994 and 1996 at two local clinics by three standardised examiners using defined visual, tactile criteria. PARTICIPANTS: Among 296 potentially eligible participants, 159 were examined, and a total of 129 had at least one tooth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The caries examination identified decayed and filled surfaces and missing teeth. RESULTS: Of the dentate subjects examined, 80% had teeth in both arches; 98% had at least one coronal filling; 81% had one or more restored root surfaces. Depending upon age and gender, between 36% and 56% of those examined had untreated coronal caries, and between 54% and 75% had untreated root caries. CONCLUSIONS: These findings document the substantial and ongoing impact of dental caries in a sample of generally healthy, community-dwelling older adults and underscore the importance of continued caries prevention and treatment in the aged.
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether caries or periodontitis is associated with cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling people aged 80 and older. SETTING: Urban, community-based population in Stockholm, Sweden. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible persons were identified through the Kungsholmen Project, which is an ongoing, longitudinal, population-based study of the oldest old. The present study included 125 dentate individuals. MEASUREMENTS: Data from interviews, a medical examination, and an oral examination. The assessment of cardiac arrhythmia was based on a clinical examination by a physician or the Stockholm Inpatient Register. Active root caries, active coronal caries, and periodontitis were assessed using previously defined National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The primary finding of the multivariate logistic regression analysis was that persons with three or more active root caries lesions had more than twice the odds of cardiac arrhythmias than persons without active root caries. The results did not notably change after adjusting for age, medications that reduce saliva, and number of teeth. Persons with one to two active coronal caries lesions had 2.8 times higher odds (95% confidence interval=1.1-7.0) of arrhythmia than persons without active coronal caries, but there was no greater risk for persons with three or more coronal caries lesions. There was no association between periodontal disease and arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that there may be a link between active root caries and cardiac arrhythmias in the oldest old. Nevertheless, although a biological pathway is not obvious, it is plausible that both are simply markers of declining general health. The results suggest the need for further study of these relationships.
The aims of the oral part of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) were (1) to establish an oral health database for adult Danes and (2) to explore the influence of general diseases and lifestyle on oral health. This paper presents the study population, examination methods, questionnaire and baseline results.
The study population comprised 4402 subjects, aged 18-96, consecutively enrolled from 18 065 DANHES participants from 13 municipalities in Denmark. The oral part consisted of a validated questionnaire and a clinical examination, carried out in mobile units by three trained and calibrated dental hygienists. The data were processed with descriptive statistics and mono- and bivariate analyses.
The mean age was 54.1 years and 60% were women. The mean number of natural teeth was 26.6; the mean DMFT/DMFS values were 18.9 and 61.0, and varied with age (DMFT 8.7-24.3). A higher proportion of females suffered from dental erosion in the younger age groups. Forty per cent of all subjects had a mean clinical attachment loss = 3 mm, varying from 4% among those aged 18-34 to 80% in those over 75. A sub-optimal saliva secretion rate was more common among females than males (17.7% vs 10.4%) and this was reflected by the reported frequency of dry mouth.
This extensive cross-sectional study provides a platform for obtaining future knowledge of the impact of health- and lifestyle-related factors on oral diseases. The validated questionnaire and the clinical characteristics enable robust analyses, although the conclusions may be hampered by limited external validity.
To identify indicators of root caries among persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Few studies have investigated dental caries in older adults with AD. Previously we found that persons with AD had significantly more root caries compared to persons with dementia other than AD.
Participants were recruited from two university hospital clinics in Copenhagen, Denmark. A team of neurologists/geriatricians carried out the diagnostic screening. The study included an interview, oral examination and medical records.
We evaluated potential indicators of root decay across subjects with 3+ decayed surfaces vs.