The association between cannabis use and the risk of psychosis has been studied extensively but the temporal order still remains controversial. Aims To examine the association between cannabis use in adolescence and the risk of psychosis after adjustment for prodromal symptoms and other potential confounders.
The sample (n = 6534) was composed of the prospective general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986. Information on prodromal symptoms of psychosis and cannabis use was collected using questionnaires at age 15-16 years. Participants were followed up for ICD-10 psychotic disorders until age 30 years using nationwide registers.
The risk of psychosis was elevated in individuals who had tried cannabis five times or more (hazard ratio, (HR) = 6.5, 95% CI 3.0-13.9). The association remained statistically significant even when adjusted for prodromal symptoms, other substance use and parental psychosis (HR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-8.0).
Adolescent cannabis use is associated with increased risk of psychosis even after adjustment for baseline prodromal symptoms, parental psychosis and other substance use. Declaration of interest None.
To investigate those ante- and perinatal circumstances preceding suicide attempts and suicides, which have so far not been studied intensively.
Examination of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,742), originally based on antenatal questionnaire data and now followed up from mid-pregnancy to age 39, to ascertain psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring and suicides or attempted suicides in the offspring using nationwide registers.
A total of 121 suicide attempts (57 males) and 69 suicides (56 males) had occurred. Previously unstudied antenatal factors (maternal depressed mood and smoking, unwanted pregnancy) were not related to these after adjustment. Psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring were the risk factors in both genders. When adjusted for these, the statistically significant risk factors among males were a single-parent family for suicide attempts (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.62-8.50) and grand multiparity for suicides (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.15-6.18). When a psychiatric disorder in females was included among possible risk factors for suicide attempts, it alone remained significant (OR 15.55, 8.78-27.53).
A single-parent family was a risk factor for attempted suicides and grand multiparity for suicides in male offspring even after adjusting for other ante- and perinatal circumstances and mental disorders in the parents and offspring. Mothers' antenatal depressed mood and smoking and unwanted pregnancy did not increase the risk of suicide, which is a novel finding.
To evaluate the association between signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and psychological distress in a general population-based sample of Finnish adults.
The Health 2000 Survey was conducted in 2000-2001 by the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland. Of the sample of adults aged 30 or over (n=8,028), 79% participated in a clinical oral health examination, which included examination of TMD signs. The participants (n=6,155) also completed questionnaires, including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which measured psychological distress. Associations between TMD signs and psychological distress measured by the GHQ-12 were examined in both genders. Statistical measures included chi-square tests, t tests, and logistic regression analyses.
The prevalence of the TMD signs (limited opening, clicking, crepitation, temporomandibular joint [TMJ] palpation pain, and muscle palpation pain) was 11.2%, 17.6%, 10.5%, 5.1%, and 18.9% in women, and 6.1%, 12.9%, 5.3%, 2.4%, and 7.2% in men, respectively. High GHQ-12 scores, measured as continuous variables and in quartiles by distress level, were significantly associated with masticatory muscle pain on palpation in both genders (P
Association between Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) Variations rs6277 and rs1800497 and Cognitive Performance According to Risk Type for Psychosis: A Nested Case Control Study in a Finnish Population Sample.
There is limited research regarding the association between genes and cognitive intermediate phenotypes in those at risk for psychotic disorders.
We measured the association between established psychosis risk variants in dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and cognitive performance in individuals at age 23 years and explored if associations between cognition and these variants differed according to the presence of familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The subjects of the Oulu Brain and Mind Study were drawn from the general population-based Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1986). Using linear regression, we compared the associations between cognitive performance and two candidate DRD2 polymorphisms (rs6277 and rs1800497) between subjects having familial (n=61) and clinical (n=45) risk for psychosis and a random sample of participating NFBC 1986 controls (n=74). Cognitive performance was evaluated using a comprehensive battery of tests at follow-up.
Principal components factor analysis supported a three-factor model for cognitive measures. The minor allele of rs6277 was associated with poorer performance on a verbal factor (p=0.003) but this did not significantly interact with familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The minor allele of rs1800497 was associated with poorer performance on a psychomotor factor (p=0.038), though only in those at familial risk for psychotic disorders (interaction p=0.049).
The effect of two DRD2 SNPs on cognitive performance may differ according to risk type for psychosis, suggesting that cognitive intermediate phenotypes differ according to the type (familial or clinical) risk for psychosis.
Depression and pain are often co-morbid. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) include facial pain as one main symptom. Reports are lacking on the association between chronic facial pain and earlier depressiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate whether depressiveness increases the risk for chronic facial pain in a longitudinal population-based study.
Subjects included in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 5696) answered a questionnaire on facial pain and depressiveness using the Symptom Checklist-25 depression sub-scale at the age of 31 years. In addition, reported depression diagnosed by a doctor was enquired about. Three years later a sub-sample of the cohort, including 63 cases with chronic facial pain and 85 pain-free controls, was formed based on the question concerning facial pain.
Of the chronic facial pain cases 17.5% and of the pain-free controls 7.1% were depressive 3 years earlier at baseline (p = 0.050, ?(2) test, crude OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-8.0). Of the chronic facial pain cases 6.3% and of the pain-free controls 1.2% reported having had diagnosed depression (p = 0.085, crude OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 0.6-52.2). After adjusting the gender, the association between depressiveness reported at the baseline and chronic facial pain was significant (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.1-16.2). When widespread pain was included in the analysis, the association was not significant.
Depressiveness increases the risk for chronic facial pain in a 3-year follow-up. This association seems to be mediated through widespread pain.
The aim was to study the association between stress level and chronic facial pain, while controlling for the effect of depression on this association, during a three-year follow-up in a general population-based birth cohort.
In the general population-based Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, information about stress level, depression and facial pain were collected using questionnaires at the age of 31 years. Stress level was measured using the Work Ability Index. Depression was assessed using the 13-item depression subscale in the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Three years later, a subsample of 52 subjects (42 women) with chronic facial pain and 52 pain-free controls (42 women) was formed.
Of the subjects having high stress level at baseline, 73.3% had chronic facial pain, and 26.7% were pain-free three years later. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that high stress level at 31 years increased the risk for chronic facial pain (crude OR 6.1, 95%, CI 1.3-28.7) three years later. When including depression in a multivariate model, depression associated statistically significantly with chronic facial pain (adjusted OR 2.5, 95%, CI 1.0-5.8), whereas stress level did not (adjusted OR 2.3, 95%, CI 0.6-8.4).
High stress level is connected with increased risk for chronic facial pain. This association seems to mediate through depression.
Antipsychotic medications and psychotic illness related factors may affect both weight and brain structure in people with psychosis. Genetically high-risk individuals offer an opportunity to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and brain structure free from these potential confounds. We examined the effect of BMI on white matter (WM) microstructure in subjects with familial risk for psychosis (FR). We used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to explore the effect of BMI on whole brain FA in 42 (13 males) participants with FR and 46 (16 males) control participants aged 20-25 years drawn from general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. We also measured axial, radial and mean diffusivities. Most of the participants were normal weight rather than obese. In the FR group, decrease in fractional anisotropy and increase in radial diffusivity were associated with an increase in BMI in several brain areas. In controls the opposite pattern was seen in participants with higher BMI. There was a statistically significant interaction between group and BMI on FA and radial and mean diffusivities. Our results suggest that the effect of BMI on WM differs between individuals with FR for psychosis and controls.
When adolescents with ADHD enter adulthood, some no longer meet disorder diagnostic criteria but it is unknown if biological and cognitive abnorma lities persist. We tested the hypothesis that people diagnosed with ADHD during adolescence present residual brain abnormalities both in brain structure and in working memory brain function. 83 young adults (aged 20-24 years) from the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort were classified as diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence (adolescence ADHD, n = 49) or a control group (n = 34). Only one patient had received medication for ADHD. T1-weighted brain scans were acquired and processed in a voxel-based analysis using permutation-based statistics. A sub-sample of both groups (ADHD, n = 21; controls n = 23) also performed a Sternberg working memory task whilst acquiring fMRI data. Areas of structural difference were used as a region of interest to evaluate the implications that structural abnormalities found in the ADHD group might have on working memory function. There was lower grey matter volume bilaterally in adolescence ADHD participants in the caudate (p
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2000 May;157(5):816-810784477
Cites: Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Oct 15;74(8):591-823566821
We tested the hypothesis that family risk for psychosis (FR) and clinical risk for psychosis (CR) are associated with structural brain abnormalities, with increased deficits in those at both family risk and clinical risk for psychosis (FRCR). The study setting was the Oulu Brain and Mind Study, with subjects drawn from the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort (n=9479) using register and questionnaire based screening, and interviews using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. After this procedure, 172 subjects were included in the study, classified as controls (n=73) and three risk groups: FR excluding CR (FR, n=60), CR without FR (CR, n=26), and individuals at both FR and CR (FRCR, n=13). T1-weighted brain scans were acquired and processed in a voxel-based analysis using permutation-based statistics. In the comparison between FRCR versus controls, we found lower grey matter volume (GMV) in a cluster (1689 voxels at -4.00, -72.00, -18.00mm) covering both cerebellar hemispheres and the vermis. This cluster was subsequently used as a mask to extract mean GMV in all four groups: FR had a volume intermediate between controls and FRCR. Within FRCR there was an association between cerebellar cluster brain volume and motor function. These findings are consistent with an evolving pattern of cerebellar deficits in psychosis risk with the most pronounced deficits in those at highest risk of psychosis.
Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, Finland; Thule Doctoral Programme, University of Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The central executive network controls and manages high-level cognitive functions. Abnormal activation in the central executive network has been related to psychosis and schizophrenia but it is not established how this applies to people with familial risk for psychosis (FR).
We conducted a resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) in 72 (29 males) young adults with a history of psychosis in one or both parents (FR) but without psychosis themselves, and 72 (29 males) similarly healthy control subjects without parental psychosis. Both groups in the Oulu Brain and Mind Study were drawn from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Participants were 20-25years old. Parental psychosis was established using the Care Register for Health Care. R-fMRI data pre-processing was conducted using independent component analysis with 30 and 70 components. A dual regression technique was used to detect between-group differences in the central executive network with p