INTRODUCTION: The change in aetiology over time of acute and chronic pancreatitis has been sparsely described, as has also the validity of the diagnostic codes. The aim of the study was 1) to clarify whether the aetiology of acute and chronic pancreatitis changed during the period 1983-2005, and 2) to validate the diagnostic codes over time for acute and chronic pancreatitis registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) in the same period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All admissions at Hvidovre Hospital coded in the NPR in 1983, 1994 and 2005 with a diagnosis of either acute or chronic pancreatitis were included. After exclusion of readmissions, the cohorts consisted of 92, 146 and 118 patients, respectively. Medical records from every admission were retrieved, the aetiology was assessed and the coding of the diagnoses was related to internationally approved criteria. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Gallstone disease significantly (p = 0.04) increased as the cause of acute pancreatitis over the 22-year period, while alcohol remained the major cause of chronic pancreatitis. The validity of the diagnoses for patients with acute pancreatitis varied between 51% and 73%, and for chronic pancreatitis between 63 and 78%.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We investigated mortality of patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), compared with the Danish population and sought to determine whether clinical presentations of CP can be used in prognosis. We also investigated clinical factors associated with mortality and causes of death among these patients. METHODS: The Copenhagen Pancreatitis Study is a prospective study of patients admitted from 1977 to 1982 to the 5 main hospitals in Copenhagen with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis or CP. In 2008, follow-up data were collected from these patients from the Danish Registries; this subcohort comprised 290 patients with probable (n = 41) or definite CP (n = 249). RESULTS: The mortality of patients with definite CP was 4-fold that of the Danish population and significantly higher than that of patients with probable CP (P = .003; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-2.57); patients with probable CP had a 2- to 3-fold higher mortality rate than the population. In patients with definite CP, factors significantly associated with mortality included non-employment (P = .015; 95% CI, 0.53-0.93), and being underweight (P = .020; 95% CI, 0.52-0.95). Sex, alcohol use, smoking, single versus co-living, exocrine insufficiency, diabetes, pancreatic calcification, CP inheritance, painless CP, acute exacerbation of CP, or surgery for CP had no impact on survival. The most frequent causes of death were digestive diseases (19.5%), malignancies (19.5%), and cardiovascular diseases (11.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Danish patients with definite CP had a 4-fold higher mortality rate compared with the background population and a higher mortality rate than patients with probable CP. Being nonemployed or underweight had significant impact on survival.
Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes of death in these patients.
During 1977-1982, patients who were admitted to the five main hospitals in Copenhagen with a diagnosis of AP or chronic pancreatitis (CP) were included in a prospective cohort, the Copenhagen Pancreatitis Study (CPS); in 2008, they were followed up by linkage to the Danish Registries. The analyzed subcohort consisted of 352 patients with probable AP (n = 54) or definite AP (n = 298).
Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant factors associated with mortality were age, alcohol, and diabetes, whereas female gender, co-living and employment were associated with better survival. The S-amylase level had no impact on mortality. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, digestive diseases, and malignancies.
Age, alcohol and diabetes had a significant impact on survival whereas the S-amylase level did not.
OBJECTIVES: The risk of intestinal malignancy in Crohn's disease (CD) remains uncertain since risk estimates vary worldwide. The global CD population is growing and there is a demand for better knowledge of prognosis of this disease. Hence, the aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis of population-based data on intestinal cancer risk in CD. METHODS: The MEDLINE search engine and abstracts from international conferences were searched for the relevant literature by use of explicit search criteria. All papers fulfilling the strict inclusion criteria were scrutinized for data on population size, time of follow-up, and observed to expected cancer rates. STATA meta-analysis software was used to perform overall pooled risk estimates (standardized incidence ratio (SIR), observed/expected) and meta-regression analyses of the influence of specific variables on SIR. RESULTS: Six papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and reported SIRs of colorectal cancer (CRC) in CD varying from 0.9 to 2.2. The pooled SIR for CRC was significantly increased (SIR, 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5), as was the risk for colon cancer separately (SIR, 2.5; 95% CI 1.7-3.5). Regarding small bowel cancer, five studies reported SIRs ranging from 3.4 to 66.7, and the overall pooled estimate was 27.1 (95% CI 14.9-49.2). CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis of intestinal cancer risk in CD, based on population-based studies only, revealed an overall increased risk of both CRC and small bowel cancer among patients with CD. However, some of the available data were several decades old, and future studies taking new treatment strategies into account are required.
Knowledge of the natural course of acute pancreatitis (AP) and risk of progression to chronic pancreatitis (CP) is limited. The aims were to describe: (1) the incidence of progression from AP to CP, (2) prognostic factors for progression, and (3) the natural course and mortality of progressive AP.
During 1977 to 1982, patients admitted to hospitals in Copenhagen with a diagnosis of AP or CP were included in a prospective cohort and followed up by the Danish registries in 2008. The subcohort analyses comprised 352 AP patients.
Progressive AP was found in 85 patients (24.1%) during follow-up; 48.2% developed from alcoholic AP, 47.0% from idiopathic AP, and 4.8% from other causes. The mortality rate for patients with progressive AP was 2.7 times higher than in patients with nonprogressive acute pancreatitis, and 5.3 to 6.5 times higher than in the background population. In Cox regression analyses corrected for age, only smoking was of significance for the progression from AP to CP.
Acute pancreatitis can progress to CP, not only from alcoholic but also from nonalcoholic AP. Smoking was the strongest risk factor associated with progression. The mortality rate for these patients was 5 to 6 times the mortality rate in the population.