Valid data on acromegaly incidence, complications and mortality are scarce. The Danish Health Care System enables nationwide studies with complete follow-up and linkage among health-related databases to assess acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and mortality in a population-based cohort study.
All incident cases of acromegaly in Denmark (1991-2010) were identified from health registries and validated by chart review. We estimated the annual incidence rate of acromegaly per 10(6) person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For every patient, 10 persons were sampled from the general population as a comparison cohort. Cox regression and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used.
Mean age at diagnosis (48.7 years (CI: 95%: 47.2-50.1)) and annual incidence rate (3.8 cases/10(6) persons (95% CI: 3.6-4.1)) among the 405 cases remained stable. The prevalence in 2010 was 85 cases/10(6) persons. The patients were at increased risk of diabetes mellitus (HR: 4.0 (95% CI: 2.7-5.8)), heart failure (HR: 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4-4.5)), venous thromboembolism (HR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-5.0)), sleep apnoea (HR: 11.7 (95% CI: 7.0-19.4)) and arthropathy (HR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6-2.6)). The complication risk was also increased before the diagnosis of acromegaly. Overall mortality risk was elevated (HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7)) but uninfluenced by treatment modality.
(i) The incidence rate and age at diagnosis of acromegaly have been stable over decades, and the prevalence is higher than previously reported. (ii) The risk of complications is very high even before the diagnosis. (iii) Mortality risk remains elevated but uninfluenced by mode of treatment.
Old age carries a markedly increased risk of osteoporotic fractures with subsequent disability, dependency and premature death. Timely detection and treatment reduces fracture risk and particular attention should be drawn to age.
To assess the impact of age on referral for osteoporosis screening.
Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at the Osteoporosis Clinic in North Denmark was reorganised from 2010. Risk factors, anthropometry and bone mineral density were recorded and considered in the reply and recommendations to the referring doctor. We report data from the 8,131 consecutive evaluations in 7914 individuals at the Osteoporosis Clinic from January 1st 2010 through December 31st 2012.
Risk factor data were available in >96% and DXA in 98%. Population DXA frequency decreased markedly after the 7th decade and was performed yearly in 1.2% of the population aged >80 years in North Denmark. The >80 years group had more fragility fractures and lower T-scores (p80 years was a dominant risk factor for fragility fracture (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0-2.9; p
Age impact on clinical risk factors does not justify the age related change in referral pattern for osteoporosis assessment - Data from the Aalborg University Hospital Record for Osteoporosis Risk Assessment (AURORA).
Osteoporotic fractures with subsequent disability, dependency and premature death are increasingly common with age. Yet, referral for osteoporosis evaluation decreases with age. Why is this, and is it justified?
To assess if age changes the impact of clinical risk factors for osteoporosis.
Clinical risk factors for osteoporosis were informed by a questionnaire and recorded in the AURORA database along with anthropometry and bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We included data from the first DXA in all individuals seen at the Osteoporosis Clinic in North Denmark in 2010 through 2012.
Risk factor data were available in >96% and DXA in >98% of the 8131 evaluations. Age 80+ years was the dominant risk factor for fragility fracture (P
Iodine fortification (IF) of salt was introduced in Denmark in 1998. Little is known about the effect of a minor increase in iodine intake on the incidence of hypothyroidism. We prospectively identified all new cases of overt hypothyroidism in two areas of Denmark before and for the first 7 yr after IF had been introduced.
A computer-based register was used to identify continuously all new cases of overt hypothyroidism in two subcohorts with previous moderate and mild iodine deficiency (ID), respectively (Aalborg, n = 310,124, urinary iodine = 45 microg/liter; and Copenhagen, n = 225,707, urinary iodine = 61 microg/liter). Data were obtained 1) before IF (1997-1998), 2) during voluntary IF (1999-2000), 3) during early (2001-2002) and 4) during late (2003-2005) period with mandatory IF.
The overall incidence rate of hypothyroidism increased during the study period: baseline, 38.3/100,000.yr; voluntary IF, 43.7 (not significant vs. baseline); early mandatory IF, 48.7 [vs. baseline, rate ratio (RR) = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.47]; and late mandatory IF, 47.2 (vs. baseline, RR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.07-1.42). There was a geographic difference because hypothyroidism increased only in the area with previous moderate ID: Aalborg, late mandatory IF vs. baseline, 40.3/29.7 (RR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.11-1.66); Copenhagen, 56.7/51.6 (RR = 1.10; 95% CI = 0.90-1.34). The increase occurred in young and middle-aged adults.
Even a cautious iodization of salt was accompanied by a moderate increase in the incidence rate of overt hypothyroidism. This occurred primarily in young and middle-aged subjects with previous moderate ID.
Patients with overt hypothyroidism show decreased echogenicity of the thyroid at ultrasonography (US). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between echogenicity of the thyroid/irregular echo pattern, and thyroid function in the general population, i.e. subjects without overt thyroid disease.
A cross-sectional investigation of 4649 randomly selected adult subjects.
Blood samples were analysed for serum TSH, thyroid hormones and thyroid autoantibodies. US of the thyroid was performed.
Participants with decreased echogenicity (n=379) had a higher mean TSH (1.65 mU/l) compared with subjects with normal echogenicity (1.21 mU/l, P
BACKGROUND: Goiter development depends on genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor is iodine intake, whereas diverging results have been published concerning the association between smoking and goiter. METHODS: A comparable, cross-sectional study was performed of patients from 2 areas in Denmark with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. A random sample of women and men in selected age groups from the general community was investigated; 4649 subjects participated. Smoking habits were investigated with questionnaires and interviews. Ultrasonography and clinical examination of the thyroid were performed, serum thyroglobulin was measured, and iodine concentration in spot urine samples was analyzed. Data were analyzed in linear models and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Serum thyroglobulin level and thyroid volume at ultrasonography were positively associated with smoking habits (P
Hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be adequately treated to prevent maternal and fetal complications, but teratogenic effects of antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment have been described. Evidence is still lacking in regard to the safety and choice of ATD in early pregnancy.
Our objective was to determine to which degree the use of methimazole (MMI)/carbimazole (CMZ) and propylthiouracil (PTU) in early pregnancy is associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects.
This Danish nationwide register-based cohort study included 817 093 children live-born from 1996 to 2008. Exposure groups were assigned according to maternal ATD use in early pregnancy: PTU (n = 564); MMI/CMZ (n = 1097); MMI/CMZ and PTU (shifted in early pregnancy [n = 159]); no ATD (ATD use, but not in pregnancy [n = 3543]); and nonexposed (never ATD use [n = 811 730]). Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for diagnosis of a birth defect before 2 years of age in exposed versus nonexposed children.
The prevalence of birth defects was high in children exposed to ATD in early pregnancy (PTU, 8.0%; MMI/CMZ, 9.1%; MMI/CMZ and PTU, 10.1%; no ATD, 5.4%; nonexposed, 5.7%; P
Autoantibodies against the thyroid gland with thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) as the most common can often be demonstrated in serum. The effect of public iodization programmes on antibody prevalence is uncertain.
To measure the concentrations of thyroid autoantibodies in the Danish population before and after mandatory iodization of salt.
Two identical cross-sectional population studies were performed before (Cohort 1 (C1), year 1997-1998, n = 4649, median urinary iodine 61 µg/l) and 4-5 years after (Cohort 2 (C2), year 2004-2005, n = 3570, median urinary iodine 101 µg/l) mandatory iodine fortification of salt was implemented in Denmark. Blood tests were analysed for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab using sensitive assays.
Antibodies were more frequent in C2 than in C1: TPO-Ab > 30 U/ml, C1 vs C2: 14·3 vs 23·8% (P 20 U/ml, C1 vs C2: 13·7 vs 19·9% (P
BACKGROUND: Iodine intake in Greenland has been hypothesized to exceed 10 times the recommended amount. The transition from a traditional Arctic society may change the iodine intake, but no field studies have been performed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to ascertain iodine intakes, factors affecting iodine intake in circumpolar populations, and the usefulness of urinary iodine excretion as a biomarker for validation of Inuit food-frequency questionnaires. DESIGN: Data were collected in a cohort study of 4 Greenland population groups: Inuit living in the capital city, the major town, and settlements in East Greenland and non-Inuit. Supplement use and lifestyle factors were evaluated with questionnaires, and dietary habits were ascertained with a food-frequency questionnaire. Iodine was measured in spot urine samples. RESULTS: One percent of the population of Greenland was invited, and the participation rate was 95%. Less than 5% of Inuit but 55% of non-Inuit had urinary iodine excretion