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Antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in Denmark 1958-2001.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176428
Source
APMIS. 2005 Jan;113(1):31-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Joanna M Hansen
Peter Gerner-Smidt
Brita Bruun
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hillerød Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark. jmh07@dadlnet.dk
Source
APMIS. 2005 Jan;113(1):31-6
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Evolution
Denmark
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - drug effects
Listeriosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
In order to see whether the susceptibility of Danish Listeria monocytogenes strains has changed over the years we examined a collection of human isolates from the period 1958-2001. We, furthermore, wanted to compare L. monocytogenes susceptibility testing using a disc diffusion assay with MIC measurements performed by the E-test. 106 strains isolated predominantly from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluids were examined together with three reference strains. Susceptibility to the following antibiotics was tested by the E-test and by Oxoid discs using Iso-sensitest agar: penicillin G, ampicillin, meropenem, gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, vancomycin, linezolid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The strains were in the main sensitive to all antibiotics examined using both methods, except for ciprofloxacin, where the strains were intermediate sensitive. However, for penicillin, ampicillin and sulphamethoxazole, while the disc diffusion assay found the strains to be sensitive, MIC measurements generally placed the strains one dilution above the breakpoint for sensitivity in the intermediate sensitive group. Based on the MIC measurements, the antibiotic susceptibility of L. monocytogenes has not changed in Denmark from 1958 to 2001, and the multiresistant strains found in human infections elsewhere have not been found in Denmark.
PubMed ID
15676012 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic carriers of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli: an empiric study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29837
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37(1):61-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Charlotte Jensen
Peter Schiellerup
Katharina Olsen
Flemming Scheutz
Eskild Petersen
Peter Gerner-Smidt
Kåre Mølbak
Author Affiliation
Unit of Gastrointestinal Infections, Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37(1):61-3
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ampicillin - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Anti-Infective Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Carrier State - drug therapy
Child, Preschool
Ciprofloxacin - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Denmark - epidemiology
Escherichia coli Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Female
Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome - chemically induced
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Serotyping
Shiga Toxins - classification
Abstract
Antimicrobial treatment of acute infection caused by verocytotoxin toxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is controversial due to risk of inducing haemolytic uraemic syndrome. We review the treatment of 9 persons who experienced serious social problems due to prolonged, asymptomatic carriage of non-O157 VTEC. Eradication of VTEC was successful and without complications.
PubMed ID
15764192 View in PubMed
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Etiology of diarrhea in young children in Denmark: a case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29560
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Aug;43(8):3636-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2005
Author
Bente Olesen
Jacob Neimann
Blenda Böttiger
Steen Ethelberg
Peter Schiellerup
Charlotte Jensen
Morten Helms
Flemming Scheutz
Katharina E P Olsen
Karen Krogfelt
Eskild Petersen
Kåre Mølbak
Peter Gerner-Smidt
Author Affiliation
Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. benol@fa.dk
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Aug;43(8):3636-41
Date
Aug-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Child, Preschool
Diarrhea - etiology - microbiology - parasitology
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Prospective Studies
Rotavirus - isolation & purification
Abstract
Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in young children. To clarify the infectious etiology of diarrhea in Danish children less than 5 years of age, we conducted a 2-year prospective case-control study. Stools from 424 children with diarrhea and 870 asymptomatic age-matched controls were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and norovirus and sapovirus were detected by PCR. Salmonella, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and Vibrio spp. were detected by standard methods. Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), attaching-and-effacing (A/EEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were detected by using colony hybridization with virulence gene probes and serotyping. Parasites were detected by microscopy. Overall, a potential pathogen was found in 54% of cases. More cases than controls were infected with rotavirus, Salmonella, norovirus, adenovirus, Campylobacter, sapovirus, STEC, classical EPEC, Yersinia, and Cryptosporidium strains, whereas A/EEC, although common, was not associated with illness. The single most important cause of diarrhea was rotavirus, which points toward the need for a childhood vaccine for this pathogen, but norovirus, adenovirus, and sapovirus were also major etiologies. Salmonella sp. was the most common bacterial pathogen, followed by Campylobacter, STEC, Yersinia, and classical EPEC strains. A/EEC not belonging to the classical EPEC serotypes was not associated with diarrhea, underscoring the importance of serotyping for the definition of EPEC.
PubMed ID
16081890 View in PubMed
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Excess mortality associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190322
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 May;8(5):490-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2002
Author
Morten Helms
Pernille Vastrup
Peter Gerner-Smidt
Kåre Mølbak
Author Affiliation
Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark.
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 May;8(5):490-5
Date
May-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacteriophage Typing
Denmark
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Salmonella Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Salmonella typhimurium - drug effects - pathogenicity - physiology
Survival Rate
Abstract
In a matched cohort study, we determined the death rates associated with drug resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium. We linked data from the Danish Surveillance Registry for Enteric Pathogens with the Civil Registration System and the Danish National Discharge Registry. By survival analysis, the 2-year death rates were compared with a matched sample of the general Danish population, after the data were adjusted for differences in comorbidity. In 2,047 patients with S. Typhimurium, 59 deaths were identified. Patients with pansusceptible strains of S. Typhimurium were 2.3 times more likely to die 2 years after infection than persons in the general Danish population. Patients infected with strains resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline were 4.8 times (95% CI 2.2 to 10.2) more likely to die, whereas quinolone resistance was associated with a mortality rate 10.3 times higher than the general population.
Notes
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Comment In: Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Oct;9(10):1350; author reply 1350-114626224
PubMed ID
11996684 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2008 Dec;5(6):703-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008

Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170578
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Feb;12(2):280-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Anne Wingstrand
Jakob Neimann
Jørgen Engberg
Eva Møller Nielsen
Peter Gerner-Smidt
Henrik C Wegener
Kåre Mølbak
Author Affiliation
Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Copenhagen, Denmark. awg@dfvf.dk
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Feb;12(2):280-5
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Campylobacter - isolation & purification
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Case-Control Studies
Chickens - microbiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Food Handling - methods
Food Microbiology
Humans
Poultry Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Risk factors
Abstract
We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase in consumption of fresh, unfrozen poultry in Denmark during the 1990s likely contributed substantially to the increasing incidence of human campylobacteriosis in this period.
Notes
Cites: Epidemiol Infect. 2001 Dec;127(3):399-40411811871
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PubMed ID
16494755 View in PubMed
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Household outbreaks among culture-confirmed cases of bacterial gastrointestinal disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181580
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Feb 15;159(4):406-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-2004
Author
Steen Ethelberg
Katharina E P Olsen
Peter Gerner-Smidt
Kåre Mølbak
Author Affiliation
Department of Gastrointestinal and Parasitic Infections, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark. set@ssi.dk
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Feb 15;159(4):406-12
Date
Feb-15-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Campylobacter
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Dysentery, Bacillary - epidemiology - microbiology
Family Characteristics
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Retrospective Studies
Salmonella
Salmonella Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Shigella sonnei
Yersinia Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Yersinia enterocolitica
Abstract
To examine the general frequency of household outbreaks, the authors performed a retrospective search among cases of the five most frequent gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in Denmark, a country of 5.3 million inhabitants. This was done for 57,667 cases registered from 1991 to 2001 by finding all cases that shared addresses and became infected within 3 weeks of one another. The percentage of cases that were part of household outbreaks was found to be 3.2% for Campylobacter, 13.3% for Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, 5.6% for Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, 2.0% for Yersinia enterocolitica, and 10.4% for Shigella sonnei. The vast majority of the outbreaks had not previously been registered. The wide variation in the ability to cause household outbreaks among the different types of bacteria reflects differences in their epidemiology and most likely also mirrors their overall outbreak potential. Differences in the time occurring between infections of household members may also indicate differences in the importance of person-to-person transmission for the different types of bacteria. The fact that household outbreaks occur with a relatively high frequency may be utilized in future analyses of sources of infection, in particular of Campylobacter, for which more household outbreaks than expected were identified.
PubMed ID
14769645 View in PubMed
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Increasing quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190321
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 May;8(5):514-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2002
Author
Kåre Mølbak
Peter Gerner-Smidt
Henrik C Wegener
Author Affiliation
Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. krm@ssi.dk
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 May;8(5):514-5
Date
May-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Chickens - microbiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Eggs - microbiology
Fluoroquinolones
Food Handling - methods
Food Microbiology
Humans
Poultry Products - microbiology
Salmonella Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Salmonella enteritidis - drug effects - genetics - physiology
Serotyping
Zoonoses - microbiology
Abstract
Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use of quinolone in food animals leads to increasing resistance in S. Enteritidis and that action should be taken to limit such use.
Notes
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1999 Nov 4;341(19):1420-510547404
Cites: Microb Drug Resist. 2000 Spring;6(1):77-8310868811
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Dec;25(6):1404-109431387
Cites: J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001 Mar;47(3):315-2111222564
Cites: Vet Res. 2001 May-Aug;32(3-4):285-9011432419
Cites: Microb Drug Resist. 2000 Winter;6(4):319-2511272261
PubMed ID
11996688 View in PubMed
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Risk factors for diarrhea among children in an industrialized country.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29309
Source
Epidemiology. 2006 Jan;17(1):24-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Steen Ethelberg
Bente Olesen
Jacob Neimann
Peter Schiellerup
Morten Helms
Charlotte Jensen
Blenda Böttiger
Katharina E P Olsen
Flemming Scheutz
Peter Gerner-Smidt
Kåre Mølbak
Author Affiliation
Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark. set@ssi.dk
Source
Epidemiology. 2006 Jan;17(1):24-30
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Case-Control Studies
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Diarrhea - epidemiology - microbiology - virology
Disease Transmission, Horizontal
Food Microbiology
Humans
Risk factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for childhood diarrhea in industrialized countries are not well characterized, although diarrhea remains an important cause of morbidity. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 422 cases and 866 controls over 22 months in Denmark. We selected cases among children under 5 years of age with diarrhea. Age-matched healthy controls were selected from the background population using a population register. Parents were interviewed about possible exposures and underlying conditions. In addition, stool samples from both cases and controls were analyzed for viruses, parasites, and bacteria. We analyzed risk factors for diarrhea in general and for diarrhea of a viral, bacterial, or "unknown" etiology using logistic regression. RESULTS: The following factors were independently associated with an increased risk of diarrhea: recent foreign travel, contact with symptomatic persons (particularly in daycare centers), hospitalization, contact with a dog with diarrhea, private daycare, consumption of products containing formula milk, unemployment and low educational status of parents, and prior diagnosis of several types of atopic diseases. In a pathogenic-specific analysis of diarrhea of bacterial (73 patients), viral (88), or "unknown" (222) etiology, the major risk factor for viral diarrhea was contact with symptomatic persons. For bacterial diarrhea, foreign travel and socioeconomic factors were the main risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Viral diarrhea appears to be transmitted predominantly from person to person, whereas bacterial diarrhea appears to be primarily foodborne. A substantial portion of the diarrheal episodes may be of noninfectious etiology. Limiting child-to-child transmission of disease in daycare centers may substantially reduce the disease burden.
Notes
Comment In: Epidemiology. 2006 Jan;17(1):6-716357588
PubMed ID
16357591 View in PubMed
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15 records – page 1 of 2.