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Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123280
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:452
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Jaclyn A Paterson
James D Ford
Lea Berrang Ford
Alexandra Lesnikowski
Peter Berry
Jim Henderson
Jody Heymann
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Burnside Hall, Montreal, QC, Canada. jpater10@gmail.com
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:452
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Geography, Medical
Humans
Local Government
Ontario
Public Health
Qualitative Research
Risk Management - organization & administration
Abstract
Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario - Canada's most populous province - include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials.
Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention.
Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies.
This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve efforts to support local adaptation and provide the capacity through which local adaptation can succeed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22712716 View in PubMed
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Development of key indicators to quantify the health impacts of climate change on Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108376
Source
Int J Public Health. 2013 Oct;58(5):765-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
June J Cheng
Peter Berry
Author Affiliation
Public Health and Preventive Medicine Residency, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, june.cheng@medportal.ca.
Source
Int J Public Health. 2013 Oct;58(5):765-75
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Climate change
Communicable Diseases - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Food Supply
Health Status Indicators
Hot Temperature - adverse effects
Humans
Mortality - trends
Reproducibility of Results
Water supply
Abstract
This study aimed at developing a list of key human health indicators for quantifying the health impacts of climate change in Canada.
A literature review was conducted in OVID Medline to identify health morbidity and mortality indicators currently used to quantify climate change impacts. Public health frameworks and other studies of climate change indicators were reviewed to identify criteria with which to evaluate the list of proposed key indicators and a rating scale was developed. Total scores for each indicator were calculated based on the rating scale.
A total of 77 health indicators were identified from the literature. After evaluation using the chosen criteria, 8 indicators were identified as the best for use. They include excess daily all-cause mortality due to heat, premature deaths due to air pollution (ozone and particulate matter 2.5), preventable deaths from climate change, disability-adjusted life years lost from climate change, daily all-cause mortality, daily non-accidental mortality, West Nile Disease incidence, and Lyme borreliosis incidence.
There is need for further data and research related to health effect quantification in the area of climate change.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23897562 View in PubMed
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From theory to practice: a Canadian case study of the utility of climate change adaptation frameworks to address health impacts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131163
Source
Int J Public Health. 2012 Feb;57(1):167-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Kaila-Lea Clarke
Peter Berry
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. kaila-lea_clarke@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Int J Public Health. 2012 Feb;57(1):167-74
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Models, Theoretical
Ontario
Public Health
Risk Management
Abstract
It is now recognized that climate change affects human health. The question is how to adapt. This article examines mainstreaming climate considerations into public health programs and the utility of climate change and health adaptation frameworks, using Ontario, Canada, as a case study.
A literature review identified climate change and health adaptation frameworks for comparison with the Ontario Public Health Standards. Key informant interviews gauged the extent to which climate change risks are currently considered in policy and planning.
Ontario's Public Health Standards already require many of the risk management activities identified in climate change and health adaptation frameworks. However, public health officials require additional information about linkages between climate change and health to manage risks.
Risk management activities such as population health assessments, surveillance and public education and outreach can address many key risks related to climate hazards when information about the risks, vulnerable populations and time scales is made available to health officials. The development, analysis and transfer of this information should be considered a priority at all levels within the public health sector.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21931977 View in PubMed
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Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142055
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Jun;7(6):2559-606
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Karen Akerlof
Roberto Debono
Peter Berry
Anthony Leiserowitz
Connie Roser-Renouf
Kaila-Lea Clarke
Anastasia Rogaeva
Matthew C Nisbet
Melinda R Weathers
Edward W Maibach
Author Affiliation
Center for Climate Change Communication, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA. kakerlof@gmu.edu
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Jun;7(6):2559-606
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Awareness
Canada
Climate Change - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Internationality
Internet
Knowledge
Malta
Public Health - statistics & numerical data
Public Opinion
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Social Perception
United States
Abstract
We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the human health consequences associated with climate change.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20644690 View in PubMed
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