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An epidemiologic study of MRI and low back pain in 13-year-old children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29799
Source
Spine. 2005 Apr 1;30(7):798-806
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2005
Author
Per Kjaer
Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde
Joan Solgaard Sorensen
Tom Bendix
Author Affiliation
The Back Research Center, Backcenter Funen and University of Southern Denmark, Lindevej, Denmark. pkrj@shf.fyns-amt.dk
Source
Spine. 2005 Apr 1;30(7):798-806
Date
Apr-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Low Back Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Lumbar Vertebrae - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study of a general population. OBJECTIVE: To describe associations between "abnormal" lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and low back pain (LBP) in 13-year old children. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Very little is known about the distribution of lumbar MRI findings and how they are associated with LBP in youngsters. METHODS: Disc abnormalities, as well as nerve root compromise, endplate changes, and anterolisthesis were identified from MRI studies of 439 children. LBP was identified from structured interviews. Associations are presented as odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Signs of disc degeneration were noted in approximately 1/3 of the subjects. Reduced signal intensity and irregular nucleus shape in the upper 3 lumbar discs were significantly associated with LBP within the last month (OR, 2.5-3.6), whereas reduced signal intensity and disc protrusion at L5-NS1 were associated with seeking care (OR, 2.8 and 7.7, respectively). Endplate changes in relation to the L3 discs were associated with LBP month and seeking care (OR, between 9.7 and 22.2). Anterolisthesis at L5 was associated with seeking care (OR, 4.3). There were obvious differences between genders: degenerative disc changes in the upper lumbar spine were more strongly associated with LBP in boys, while disc abnormalities in the lower lumbar spine were more strongly associated with seeking care in girls. CONCLUSIONS: In children, degenerative disc findings are relatively common, and some are associated with LBP. There appears to be a gender difference. Disc protrusions, endplate changes, and anterolisthesis in the lumbar spine were strongly associated with seeking care for LBP.
PubMed ID
15803084 View in PubMed
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Characteristics and natural course of vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes in the Danish general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149899
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10:81
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Tue S Jensen
Tom Bendix
Joan S Sorensen
Claus Manniche
Lars Korsholm
Per Kjaer
Author Affiliation
The Back Research Center, Ringe, Denmark. Tue.Secher.Jensen@shf.regionsyddanmark.dk
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10:81
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Denmark
Disease Progression
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Intervertebral Disc - pathology
Logistic Models
Lumbar Vertebrae - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Observer Variation
Predictive value of tests
Prospective Studies
Reproducibility of Results
Spinal Diseases - pathology
Time Factors
Abstract
Vertebral endplate signal changes (VESC) are more common among patients with low back pain (LBP) and/or sciatica than in people who are not seeking care for back pain. The distribution and characteristics of VESC have been described in people from clinical and non-clinical populations. However, while the clinical course of VESC has been studied in patients, the natural course in the general population has not been reported. The objectives of this prospective observational study were to describe: 1) the distribution and characteristics of VESC in the lumbar spine, 2) its association with disc degeneration, and 3) its natural course from 40 to 44 years of age.
Three-hundred-and-forty-four individuals (161 men and 183 women) sampled from the Danish general population had MRI at the age of 40 and again at the age of 44. The following MRI findings were evaluated using standardised evaluation protocols: type, location, and size of VESC, disc signal, and disc height. Characteristics and distribution of VESC were analysed by frequency tables. The association between VESC and disc degeneration was analysed by logistic regression analysis. The change in type and size of VESC was analysed by cross-tabulations of variables obtained at age 40 and 44 and tested using McNemar's test of symmetry.
Two-thirds (67%) of VESC found in this study were located in the lower part of the spine (L4-S1). VESC located at disc levels L1-L3 were generally small and located only in the anterior part of the vertebra, whereas those located at disc levels L4-S1 were more likely to extend further into the vertebra and along the endplate. Moreover, the more the VESC extended into the vertebra, the more likely it was that the adjacent disc was degenerated. The prevalence of endplate levels with VESC increased significantly from 6% to 9% from age 40 to 44. Again, VESC that was only observed in the endplate was more likely to come and go over the four-year period compared with those which extended further into the vertebra, where it generally persisted.
The prevalence of VESC increased significantly over the four-year period. Furthermore, the results from this study indicate that the distribution of VESC, its association with disc degeneration and its natural course, is dependent on the size of the signal changes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19575784 View in PubMed
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Degenerative Pathways of Lumbar Motion Segments--A Comparison in Two Samples of Patients with Persistent Low Back Pain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274229
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146998
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Rikke K Jensen
Per Kjaer
Tue S Jensen
Hanne Albert
Peter Kent
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146998
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Progression
Female
Humans
Intervertebral Disc Degeneration - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Intervertebral Disc Displacement - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Low Back Pain - epidemiology - etiology - pathology - physiopathology
Lumbar Vertebrae - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Motion
Nerve Compression Syndromes - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Spinal Nerve Roots - pathology
Spinal Osteophytosis - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Spinal Stenosis - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Spondylolisthesis - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Young Adult
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to identify spinal pathoanatomy in people with persistent low back pain. However, the clinical relevance of spinal degenerative MRI findings remains uncertain. Although multiple MRI findings are almost always present at the same time, research into the association with clinical outcomes (such as pain) has predominantly focused on individual MRI findings. This study aimed to: (i) investigate how multiple MRI lumbar spine findings cluster together within two different samples of patients with low back pain, (ii) classify these clusters into hypothetical pathways of degeneration based on scientific knowledge of disco-vertebral degeneration, and (iii) compare these clusters and degenerative pathways between samples.
We performed a secondary cross-sectional analysis on two dissimilar MRI samples collected in a hospital department: (1) data from the spinal MRI reports of 4,162 low back pain patients and (2) data from an MRI research protocol of 631 low back pain patients. Latent Class Analysis was used in both samples to cluster MRI findings from lumbar motion segments. Using content analysis, each cluster was then categorised into hypothetical pathways of degeneration.
Six clusters of MRI findings were identified in each of the two samples. The content of the clusters in the two samples displayed some differences but had the same overall pattern of MRI findings. Although the hypothetical degenerative pathways identified in the two samples were not identical, the overall pattern of increasing degeneration within the pathways was the same.
It was expected that different clusters could emerge from different samples, however, when organised into hypothetical pathways of degeneration, the overall pattern of increasing degeneration was similar and biologically plausible. This evidence of reproducibility suggests that Latent Class Analysis may provide a new approach to investigating the relationship between MRI findings and clinically important characteristics such as pain and activity limitation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26807697 View in PubMed
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Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134191
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:114
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Flemming Enoch
Per Kjaer
Arne Elkjaer
Lars Remvig
Birgit Juul-Kristensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Rheumatology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. fe@fysiq.dk
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:114
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biomechanical Phenomena
Case-Control Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Low Back Pain - diagnosis - physiopathology
Lumbosacral Region
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Observer Variation
Patient Positioning
Physical Examination - standards
Physical Therapy Modalities - standards
Posture
Predictive value of tests
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC) and low back pain (LBP). However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability--i.e. reproducibility and validity--of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practice.
The five tests for LMC were: repositioning (RPS), sitting forward lean (SFL), sitting knee extension (SKE), and bent knee fall out (BKFO), all measured in cm, and leg lowering (LL), measured in mm Hg. A total of 40 subjects (14 males, 26 females) 25 with and 15 without LBP, with a mean age of 46.5 years (SD 14.8), were examined independently and in random order by two examiners on the same day. LBP subjects were recruited from three physiotherapy clinics with a connection to the clinic's gym or back-school. Non-LBP subjects were recruited from the clinic's staff acquaintances, and from patients without LBP.
The means and standard deviations for each of the tests were 0.36 (0.27) cm for RPS, 1.01 (0.62) cm for SFL, 0.40 (0.29) cm for SKE, 1.07 (0.52) cm for BKFO, and 32.9 (7.1) mm Hg for LL. All five tests for LMC had reproducibility with the following ICCs: 0.90 for RPS, 0.96 for SFL, 0.96 for SKE, 0.94 for BKFO, and 0.98 for LL. Bland and Altman plots showed that most of the differences between examiners A and B were less than 0.20 cm.
These five tests for LMC displayed excellent reproducibility. However, the diagnostic accuracy of these tests needs to be addressed in larger cohorts of subjects, establishing values for the normal population. Also cut-points between subjects with and without LBP must be determined, taking into account age, level of activity, degree of impairment and participation in sports. Whether reproducibility of these tests is as good in daily clinical practice when used by untrained examiners also needs to be examined.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21612650 View in PubMed
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Magnetic resonance imaging and low back pain in adults: a diagnostic imaging study of 40-year-old men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174772
Source
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 May 15;30(10):1173-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2005
Author
Per Kjaer
Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde
Lars Korsholm
Joan Solgaard Sorensen
Tom Bendix
Author Affiliation
The Back Research Center, Backcenter Funen, Ringe, Denmark. pkrj@shf.fyns-amt.dk
Source
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 May 15;30(10):1173-80
Date
May-15-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Intervertebral Disc Displacement - epidemiology - pathology
Low Back Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology
Lumbar Vertebrae - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods
Male
Questionnaires
Abstract
Cross-sectional cohort study of a general population.
To investigate "abnormal" lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and their prevalence and associations with low back pain (LBP).
The clinical relevance of various "abnormal" findings in the lumbar spine is unclear. Distinguishing between inevitable age-related findings and degenerative findings with deleterious consequences is a challenge.
Lumbar spine MRI was obtained in 412, 40-year-old individuals. Predefined "abnormal" MRI findings were interpreted without any knowledge of patient symptoms. Associations between MRI abnormalities and LBP were calculated using odds ratios. The "overall picture" of each MRI finding was established on the basis of the frequencies, diagnostic values, and the strength and consistency of associations.
Most "abnormal" MRI findings were found at the lowest lumbar levels. Irregular nucleus shape and reduced disc height were common (>50% of individuals). Relatively common (25% to 50%) were hypointense disc signal, anular tears, high intensity zones, disc protrusions, endplate changes, zygapophyseal joint degeneration, asymmetry, and foraminal stenosis. Nerve root compromise, Modic changes, central spinal stenosis, and anterolisthesis/retrolisthesis were rare (4). Significantly positive associations with all LBP variables were seen for hypointense disc signals, reduced disc height, and Modic changes. All disc "abnormalities" except protrusion were moderately associated with LBP during the past year.
Most degenerative disc "abnormalities" were moderately associated with LBP. The strongest associations were noted for Modic changes and anterolisthesis. Further studies are needed to define clinical relevance.
PubMed ID
15897832 View in PubMed
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Predictors of new vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes in the general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98736
Source
Eur Spine J. 2010 Jan;19(1):129-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Tue Secher Jensen
Per Kjaer
Lars Korsholm
Tom Bendix
Joan S Sorensen
Claus Manniche
Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde
Author Affiliation
The Back Research Centre, Lindevej 5, 5750 Ringe, Denmark. Tue.Secher.Jensen@shf.regionsyddanmark.dk
Source
Eur Spine J. 2010 Jan;19(1):129-35
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aging - pathology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Progression
Female
Humans
Intervertebral Disk - pathology - physiopathology
Intervertebral Disk Degeneration - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Low Back Pain - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Lumbar Vertebrae - pathology - physiopathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Obesity - epidemiology
Predictive value of tests
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Risk Reduction Behavior
Sedentary lifestyle
Smoking - epidemiology
Abstract
Vertebral endplate signal changes (VESC), also known as Modic changes, have been reported to be associated with low back pain (LBP). However, little is known about predisposing factors for the development of new VESC. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of lifestyle factors and disc-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in relation to the development of new VESC. This prospective observational study included 344 people from the Danish general population who had an MRI and completed LBP questionnaires at the age of 40 and again at 44 years. Potential predictors of new VESC were female gender, disc-related MRI findings (disc degeneration, disc bulges, disc herniation, and other endplate changes) and lifestyle factors [high physical work or leisure activity, high body mass index (BMI), and heavy smoking]. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of new VESC. New VESC at the age of 44 appeared in 67 of the 344. The majority (84%) of these new signal changes were type 1 VESC and almost half (45%) were only in the endplate and did not extend into the vertebral body. In the multivariate analysis, lumbar disc levels with disc degeneration, bulges or herniations at 40 were the only predictors of new VESC at age 44. Therefore, the development of new VESC at the age of 44 appears to be based on the status and dynamics of the disc, rather than being the result of gender or lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical load.
PubMed ID
19921523 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and tracking of back pain from childhood to adolescence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134475
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:98
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Per Kjaer
Niels Wedderkopp
Lars Korsholm
Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde
Author Affiliation
Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Part of Clinical Locomotion Network, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230, Odense, Denmark. pkjaer@health.sdu.dk
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:98
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Age Factors
Age of Onset
Aging
Back Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Child
Child Behavior
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Progression
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Neck Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Pain Measurement
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Prevalence
Sex Factors
Abstract
It is generally acknowledged that back pain (BP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, the development until early adulthood is not well understood and, in particular, not the individual tracking pattern. The objectives of this paper are to show the prevalence estimates of BP, low back pain (LBP), mid back pain (MBP), neck pain (NP), and care-seeking because of BP at three different ages (9, 13 and 15 years) and how the BP reporting tracks over these age groups over three consecutive surveys.
A longitudinal cohort study was carried out from the years of 1997 till 2005, collecting interview data from children who were sampled to be representative of Danish schoolchildren. BP was defined overall and specifically in the three spinal regions as having reported pain within the past month. The prevalence estimates and the various patterns of BP reporting over time are presented as percentages.
Of the 771 children sampled, 62%, 57%, and 58% participated in the three back surveys and 34% participated in all three. The prevalence estimates for children at the ages of 9, 13, and 15, respectively, were for BP 33%, 28%, and 48%; for LBP 4%, 22%, and 36%; for MBP 20%, 13%, and 35%; and for NP 10%, 7%, and 15%. Seeking care for BP increased from 6% and 8% at the two youngest ages to 34% at the oldest. Only 7% of the children who participated in all three surveys reported BP each time and 30% of these always reported no pain. The patterns of development differed for the three spinal regions and between genders. Status at the previous survey predicted status at the next survey, so that those who had pain before were more likely to report pain again and vice versa. This was most pronounced for care-seeking.
It was confirmed that BP starts early in life, but the patterns of onset and development over time vary for different parts of the spine and between genders. Because of these differences, it is recommended to report on BP in youngsters separately for the three spinal regions, and to differentiate in the analyses between the genders and age groups. Although only a small minority reported BP at two or all three surveys, tracking of BP (particularly NP) and care seeking was noted from one survey to the other. On the positive side, individuals without BP at a previous survey were likely to remain pain free at the subsequent survey.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21575251 View in PubMed
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Progression of lumbar disc herniations over an eight-year period in a group of adult Danes from the general population--a longitudinal MRI study using quantitative measures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276991
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016 Jan 15;17:26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-15-2016
Author
Per Kjaer
Andreas Tunset
Eleanor Boyle
Tue Secher Jensen
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016 Jan 15;17:26
Date
Jan-15-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Intervertebral Disc Displacement - diagnosis - epidemiology
Longitudinal Studies
Lumbar Vertebrae - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - trends
Male
Population Surveillance - methods
Time Factors
Abstract
A lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a localised displacement of disc material, which may initiate changes in the disc and adjacent structures such as the nerve root and the spinal canal. Knowledge about how morphological changes in the disc relate to changes in other spinal structures might give the clinician a better understanding of the natural history and consequences of lumbar disc herniations. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated this process using reliable measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objectives of this study were to examine changes in and associations between the size of lumbar disc herniations, dural sac area and disc height over an eight-year period using MRI at three time-points.
Individuals from a population-based cohort, the 'Backs on Funen Cohort', had MRIs taken at age 41 years and again at 45 and 49 years. Only disc levels with MRI-confirmed disc herniations at 41 or 45 years were included. Cross-sectional areas (mm(2)) of the LDH, dural sac and disc height were calculated from measurements performed on sagittal T2-weighted images using a previously validated method. Changes over time for the three MRI findings were defined as "unchanged", "increased ", "decreased", or "fluctuating". Only changes beyond 95% limits of agreement of the same measurements were regarded as valid. Associations between the three types of measures were examined cross-sectionally and longitudinally.
One hundred and forty disc levels, from 106 people (48 women and 58 men), were included. Over eight years, 65% of the herniations remained unchanged, 17.5% decreased, 12.5% increased, and 5% had a fluctuating pattern. Increased herniation size was associated with decreased dural sac area (?-0.25[-0.52;0.01]) and increased disc height (? 0.35[0.14;0.56]). Moreover, larger herniation size predicted a statistically significant reduction in both dural sac area (?-0.35[-0.58;-0.13]) and disc height (?-0.50[-0.81;-0.20]).
On average, most LDHs do not change over a four- to eight-year period. However, larger herniation size predicts a reduction in both dural sac area and disc height. Further research should be done to determine the correlations between the progression of LDH and resolution of patient symptoms.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26767364 View in PubMed
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Stability of low back pain reporting over 8 years in a general population aged 40/41 years at base-line: data from three consecutive cross-sectional surveys.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107117
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:270
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Nadège Lemeunier
Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde
Per Kjaer
Olivier Gagey
Author Affiliation
Complexité, Innovation et Activités Motrices et Sportives, Bâtiment 335, UFR STAPS, Université d'Orsay Paris Sud 11, Orsay Cédex 91405, France. nlemeunier@ifec.net.
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:270
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health Care Surveys
Humans
Low Back Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Pain Measurement
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Time Factors
Abstract
A recent review on the natural course of low back pain (LBP) in the general population indicated that the LBP reporting pattern is fairly constant over time. Furthermore, the LBP status at baseline (yes/no) seems to be predictive of the future course. When fluctuations occur, they seem most common between the nearest categories. However, in the majority of articles, non-responders were not taken into account in the analyses or interpretation of data, meaning that estimates may have been biased. Further, all reviewed studies included study participants of many different age groups. Data from three cross-sectional surveys over 8 years of the same cohort made it possible to answer the following questions: 1) Would the prevalence estimates of LBP be stable over time? 2) How would results change when taking into account non-responders? 3) Is the LBP reporting over the three survey periods stable at an individual level, taking into account also the non-responding group?
Data from three subsequent cross-sectional surveys of a study sample were available and questions about LBP were asked at baseline and also 4 and 8 years later. Study participants were 40/41 years at base-line and initially randomly selected from the general Danish population. Data were analyzed with STATA/IC 12, and presented with percentages and 95% confidence intervals.
The majority of participants reported to have had LBP in the preceding year but not having taken sick leave in relation to this pain. LBP was stable or relatively stable for the study participants as they progressed through their fifth decade. This was true on a population basis and also on an individual level. When non-responders were taken into account the results did not change.
This study confirmed the results from our recent review; both presence and absence of LBP seem to be predictive for the future course. The percentage of non-responders in this type of study may not be as important as previously thought in relation to the presence/absence of LBP.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24053477 View in PubMed
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Vitamin D levels appear to be normal in Danish patients attending secondary care for low back pain and a weak positive correlation between serum level Vitamin D and Modic changes was demonstrated: a cross-sectional cohort study of consecutive patients with non-specific low back pain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115539
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:78
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Jannick Vaaben Johansen
Claus Manniche
Per Kjaer
Author Affiliation
Research Unit, Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Part of Clinical Locomotion Network, Hospital Lillebaelt, Institute of Regional Health Services, University of Southern Denmark, Oestre Hougvej 55, Middelfart, DK-5500, Denmark. jannick.vaaben.johansen@rsyd.dk
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:78
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ambulatory Care
Biological Markers - blood
Body mass index
Chromatography, Liquid
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Low Back Pain - blood - diagnosis - physiopathology - therapy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle Weakness - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pain Measurement
Paresthesia - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Secondary Care
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Treatment Outcome
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Hypovitaminosis D has previously been reported in both the general population, in people with chronic musculoskeletal pain, and in people with low back pain (LBP). Myopathy-related symptoms such as diffuse bone and muscle pain, weakness and paresthesia in the legs, have also been observed in people with non-specific LBP and associations with low levels of Vitamin D have been suggested. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) Vitamin D levels in patients seeking care for LBP in a Danish out-patient secondary care setting, and (2) their possible relationship with myopathy-related symptoms, Body Mass Index (BMI), and Modic changes.
A total of 152 consecutive patients with non-specific LBP participated in a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited at The Spine Centre of Southern Denmark during springtime 2011. Individual serum levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin-D were determined using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Information about symptoms, height, and weight were collected from electronic questionnaires completed by the participants. All patients had an MRI from which Modic changes were identified. Correlations between Vitamin D level and pain, paresthesia, weakness in the legs, BMI or Modic changes were described using correlation coefficients and odds ratios obtained from logistic regression.
Two-thirds of the included patients with LBP had normal Vitamin D levels of >50?nmol/L. No correlations were seen between Vitamin D deficiency and gender, age, back pain intensity, leg pain intensity, and duration of pain. Statistically significant, but low, correlation coefficients were found between Vitamin D levels and BMI as well as Modic changes. Low Vitamin D levels and Modic changes were statistically significantly associated with an odds ratio of 0.30 (95% CI 0.12; 0.75) while weakness, paresthesia and widespread pain were not.
In patients seeking care for low back pain in a Danish outpatient clinic, Vitamin D deficiency was not common. Whether patients who are overweight or who have Modic changes might represent subgroups of people for whom their LBP may be associated with Vitamin D levels, needs further investigation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23497097 View in PubMed
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