The possible viral etiology of mumps-like illnesses in patients vaccinated for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) was studied by use of serum samples prospectively collected, during 1983-1998, from 601 acutely ill Finnish children and adolescents with mumps-like symptoms. Mumps virus was excluded by testing serum samples for mumps antibodies, and the serum samples were further tested for antibodies to adenovirus, enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, parainfluenza virus types 1-3, and parvovirus B19. The serum samples of 114 children
Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International Center for the Prevention of type 1 diabetes in Finland and the Department of Virology, University of Tampere, Medical School, Tampere, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Previous studies have suggested that enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. Our aim was to evaluate the role of first trimester enterovirus infections in a larger cohort of pregnant women. Two series of pregnant women were analyzed as follows: 948 women (series 1) and 680 women (series 2) whose child developed clinical diabetes before the ages of 15 or 7 years, respectively. An equal number of control women with a nondiabetic child was selected. Acute enterovirus infections were diagnosed by measuring IgM class antibodies against coxsackievirus B5 (series 1) and a mixture of coxsackievirus B3, coxsackievirus A16, and echovirus 11 antigens (series 2). In series 2, all sera were also analyzed for IgG class antibodies against an enterovirus peptide antigen. In addition, 152 randomly selected case-control pairs and all IgM-positive mothers' sera were tested for enterovirus RNA (series 2). In series 1, 3.1% of case women had IgM antibodies against coxsackievirus B5 antigen compared with 4.1% of control women (NS). In series 2, 7.1% of case and 5.3% of control women had IgM against the mixture of enterovirus antigens (NS). IgG class enterovirus antibodies did not differ between the groups. Enterovirus RNA was found only in one case woman (0.3%) of the subgroup of samples and in 5.7% of 70 IgM-positive women. The results suggest that enterovirus infection during the first trimester of pregnancy is not associated with increased risk for type 1 diabetes in the child.
The persistence of antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella induced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and the kinetics of antibody decline after the second MMR vaccine dose were studied in the same cohort for 20 years.
Measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies were measured by enzyme immunoassay in 20-year follow-up serum samples (n= 183) of twice-vaccinated individuals, and measles antibodies were also measured in oral fluids (n = 177). Antibody decay was determined in a group (n = 58) with subsequent samples collected 1, 8, and 15 years after the second MMR dose.
In total, 95%, 74%, and 100% of 183 vaccinees were still seropositive for measles, mumps, and rubella, respectively, and 85% of 177 vaccinees had measurable measles antibodies in their oral fluids. The antibody levels declined significantly after the second dose, but subsequently the rate of decline was slower.
A high rate of seropositivity was found 20 years after the first MMR dose, particularly for rubella and measles. Our results show that MMR vaccine-induced antibodies wane significantly after the second dose. According to epidemiological data, the protection induced by MMR vaccination in Finland seems to persist at least until early adulthood. However, the situation requires constant vigilance.