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Accounting for depressive symptoms in women: a twin study of associations with interpersonal relationships.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45767
Source
J Affect Disord. 2004 Oct 1;82(1):101-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2004
Author
Erica L Spotts
Jenae M Neiderhiser
Jody Ganiban
David Reiss
Paul Lichtenstein
Kjell Hansson
Marianne Cederblad
Nancy L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, S-171-77 Stockholm, Sweden. Erica.Spotts@mep.ki.se
Source
J Affect Disord. 2004 Oct 1;82(1):101-11
Date
Oct-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - genetics - psychology
Female
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Marriage
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Social Support
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: This study examined how interpersonal relationships, specifically marital quality and adequacy of social support, are associated with depressive symptoms among women. METHODS: A sample of 326 female monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs and their spouses was drawn from the Swedish Twin Registry. Associations among the three variables were evaluated by comparing similarities among monozygotic and dizygotic female twin pairs. RESULTS: Interpersonal relationships contributed between 18% and 31% of the variance for depressive symptoms in women. Associations among the three variables were accounted for by genetic influences when women's reports were used. Non-shared environmental influences were important for the association between marital quality and depressive symptoms when a combination of husband and wife reports of marital quality were used. LIMITATIONS: The data is cross-sectional and the generalizability of these findings to depressive symptoms in men or to individuals with major depression is not clear. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate important associations among marital quality, social support and depressive symptoms in women, which should be taken into consideration for prevention and intervention strategies targeting depression.
PubMed ID
15465582 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acute intermittent porphyria: comorbidity and shared familial risks with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277339
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Dec;207(6):556-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Martin Cederlöf
Sarah E Bergen
Henrik Larsson
Mikael Landén
Paul Lichtenstein
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Dec;207(6):556-7
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Family Health
Female
Humans
Male
Porphyria, Acute Intermittent - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology
Sweden
Abstract
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) has been associated with schizophrenia in some studies, but prior research is limited by the absence of comparison populations. Here, we linked Swedish registers to examine the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in 717 individuals diagnosed with AIP and their first-degree relatives, compared with matched individuals without AIP and their first-degree relatives. Individuals with AIP had a fourfold increased risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Similarly, relatives of individuals with AIP had double the risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, suggesting that these associations may be as a result of common genetic influences.
PubMed ID
26494868 View in PubMed
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Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275825
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2016 Feb;28(1):149-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Kristine Marceau
Valerie S Knopik
Jenae M Neiderhiser
Paul Lichtenstein
Erica L Spotts
Jody M Ganiban
David Reiss
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2016 Feb;28(1):149-66
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Environment
Family Relations
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genotype
Humans
Male
Mothers
Parent-Child Relations
Parents
Social Environment
Sweden
Twins - genetics - psychology
Abstract
We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25924807 View in PubMed
Less detail

Advanced paternal and grandpaternal age and schizophrenia: a three-generation perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130452
Source
Schizophr Res. 2011 Dec;133(1-3):120-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Emma M Frans
John J McGrath
Sven Sandin
Paul Lichtenstein
Abraham Reichenberg
Niklas Långström
Christina M Hultman
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Schizophr Res. 2011 Dec;133(1-3):120-4
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Family Health
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Parents
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - genetics
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Advanced paternal age has been linked with an increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. If age-related de novo mutations in the male germ line underlie this association, grandpaternal and paternal age would both be expected to influence the risk of schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to explore the links between both paternal and grandpaternal age with respect to the risk of schizophrenia in a large, national register-based cohort.
We linked the Swedish Multi-Generation and Hospital Discharge Registers and compared parents' ages at offspring birth for 20,582 schizophrenia-affected and 100,176 non-affected individuals. Grandparents' ages at the birth of the parent were compared between 2511 affected and 15,619 non-affected individuals. The risk of schizophrenia was examined with logistic regression when the predictor variable (parent or grandparent age) varied across age strata.
After adjusting for maternal age, birth year and proband sex, we confirmed that offspring of older fathers had an increased risk of schizophrenia. Compared to those with paternal age 20-24years, those with fathers >55years had a two-fold increased risk of schizophrenia. With respect to grandparent age, older maternal (but not paternal) grandfather age was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Compared to maternal grandfather age 20-24years, those with maternal grandfathers >55years had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals; 2.79, 1.71-4.56). The pattern of results was essentially unchanged when we examined male and female probands separately.
This is the first study to report an association between grandpaternal age and risk of schizophrenia. The selective effect of advanced maternal grandfather age suggests that the biological mechanisms involving the X-chromosome may differentially contribute to the association between paternal age and offspring risk of schizophrenia.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22000939 View in PubMed
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Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122731
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2012 Aug;24(3):739-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Ralf Kuja-Halkola
Yudi Pawitan
Brian M D'Onofrio
Niklas Långström
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 281, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. ralf.kuja-halkola@ki.se
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2012 Aug;24(3):739-53
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - genetics
Crime - psychology
Criminals - psychology
Fathers
Humans
Male
Paternal Age
Registries
Risk
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - genetics
Siblings - psychology
Sweden
Violence - psychology
Abstract
Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22781852 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use disorder and divorce: evidence for a genetic correlation in a population-based Swedish sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290102
Source
Addiction. 2017 Apr; 112(4):586-593
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Jessica E Salvatore
Sara Larsson Lönn
Jan Sundquist
Paul Lichtenstein
Kristina Sundquist
Kenneth S Kendler
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
Source
Addiction. 2017 Apr; 112(4):586-593
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Keywords
Aged
Alcoholism - epidemiology - genetics
Divorce - statistics & numerical data
Environment
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
We tested the association between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and divorce; estimated the genetic and environmental influences on divorce; estimated how much genetic and environmental influences accounted for covariance between AUD and divorce; and estimated latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce. We tested sex differences in these effects.
We identified twin and sibling pairs with AUD and divorce information in Swedish national registers. We described the association between AUD and divorce using tetrachorics and used twin and sibling models to estimate genetic and environmental influences on divorce, on the covariance between AUD and divorce and the latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce.
Sweden.
A total of 670?836 individuals (53% male) born 1940-1965.
Life-time measures of AUD and divorce.
AUD and divorce were related strongly (males: rtet  = +0.44, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.45; females rtet  = +0.37, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.38). Genetic factors accounted for a modest proportion of the variance in divorce (males: 21.3%, 95% CI = 7.6, 28.5; females: 31.0%, 95% CI = 18.8, 37.1). Genetic factors accounted for most of the covariance between AUD and divorce (males: 52.0%, 95% CI = 48.8, 67.9; females: 53.74%, 95% CI = 17.6, 54.5), followed by non-shared environmental factors (males: 45.0%, 95% CI = 37.5, 54.9; females: 41.6%, 95% CI = 40.3, 60.2). Shared environmental factors accounted for a negligible proportion of the covariance (males: 3.0%, 95% CI = -3.0, 13.5; females: 4.75%, 95% CI = 0.0, 6.6). The AUD-divorce genetic correlations were high (males: rA = +0.76, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.90; females +0.52, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.67). The non-shared environmental correlations were modest (males: rE = +0.32, 95% CI = 0.31, 0.40; females: +0.27, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.36).
Divorce and alcohol use disorder are correlated strongly in the Swedish population, and the heritability of divorce is consistent with previous studies. Covariation between AUD and divorce results from overlapping genetic and non-shared environmental factors. Latent genetic and non-shared environmental correlations for alcohol use disorder and divorce are high and moderate.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27981669 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use disorders in schizophrenia: a national cohort study of 12,653 patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133164
Source
J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Jun;72(6):775-9; quiz 878-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Roland M Jones
Paul Lichtenstein
Martin Grann
Niklas Långström
Seena Fazel
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. jonesrm6@cf.ac.uk
Source
J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Jun;72(6):775-9; quiz 878-9
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Alcoholism - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Case-Control Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Male
Marital status
Regression Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Comorbid alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in schizophrenia are associated with increased morbidity, more inpatient treatment, and violent offending. It is of clinical importance to identify those with schizophrenia who may go on to develop an alcohol use disorder; however, the risk factors are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of an AUD in patients after they had been diagnosed with schizophrenia.
We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 12,653 individuals diagnosed with ICD-defined schizophrenia in Sweden in 1973-2004, using data from national registers. We tested the associations between individual factors (marital status, immigrant status, and previous violent offending), sociodemographic factors (income and education), and parental risk factors (AUDs, psychosis, and violent offending) ICD-defined and AUD development using logistic regression modeling.
Over a median follow-up of 17.3 years, 7.6% of patients had at least 1 hospital diagnosis of AUD. After adjustment for gender and age at diagnosis in a multivariate regression model, previous violent offending (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.5), low education (OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5), maternal AUD (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7), and paternal AUD (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3) remained independently associated with increased risk of patient AUD.
AUDs are a common sequela of schizophrenia. Risk factors that could be identified at the time of first presentation include low educational attainment, previous violent offending, and parental history of AUDs and may inform clinical treatment and follow-up of those most at risk.
PubMed ID
21733478 View in PubMed
Less detail

Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10,365 general population men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277753
Source
Addiction. 2015 Jan;110(1):100-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Lena Lundholm
Thomas Frisell
Paul Lichtenstein
Niklas Långström
Source
Addiction. 2015 Jan;110(1):100-8
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aggression - drug effects
Anabolic Agents - adverse effects
Androgens - adverse effects
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Criminals - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Personality Disorders - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with aggressive and violent behaviour, but it remains uncertain if this relationship is causal in humans. We examined the link between AAS use and violent crime while controlling for polysubstance abuse and additional suggested risk factors for violence.
Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample.
In 2005, all Swedish-born male twins aged 20-47 years were invited to participate in the Swedish Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) survey of the Swedish Twin Register (response rate?=?60%).
A total of 10,365 male survey participants with information on AAS use.
Data on self-reported use of AAS, alcohol and other substances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality disorder symptoms were linked to nation-wide, longitudinal register information on criminal convictions, IQ, psychological functioning and childhood socio-economic status (SES) covariates.
Any life-time use of AAS was associated strongly with conviction for a violent crime [2.7 versus 0.6% in convicted and non-convicted men, respectively; odds ratio (OR)?=?5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?2.7-9.3]. However, this link was substantially reduced and no longer significant when controlling for other substance abuse (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI?=?0.8-3.3). Controlling for IQ, psychological functioning, ADHD, personality disorder symptoms and childhood SES did not reduce the risk further.
In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse, but not IQ, other neuropsychological risks or socio-economic status, explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime.
PubMed ID
25170826 View in PubMed
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Anorexia Nervosa, Major Depression, and Suicide Attempts: Shared Genetic Factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286785
Source
Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2016 Oct;46(5):525-534
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Laura M Thornton
Elisabeth Welch
Melissa A Munn-Chernoff
Paul Lichtenstein
Cynthia M Bulik
Source
Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2016 Oct;46(5):525-534
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Humans
Middle Aged
Phenotype
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Risk factors
Statistics as Topic
Suicide, Attempted - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The extent to which genetic and environmental factors influenced anorexia nervosa (AN), major depressive disorder (MDD), and suicide attempts (SA) were evaluated. Participants were 6,899 women from the Swedish Twin Study of Adults: Genes and Environment. A Cholesky decomposition assessed independent and overlapping genetic and environmental contributions to AN, MDD, and SA. Genetic factors accounted for a substantial amount of liability to all three traits; unique environmental factors accounted for most of the remaining liability. Shared genetic factors may underlie the coexpression of these traits. Results underscore the importance of assessing for signs of suicide among individuals with AN.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26916469 View in PubMed
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Antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and risk of violent crime.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258846
Source
Lancet. 2014 Sep 27;384(9949):1206-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-27-2014
Author
Seena Fazel
Johan Zetterqvist
Henrik Larsson
Niklas Långström
Paul Lichtenstein
Source
Lancet. 2014 Sep 27;384(9949):1206-14
Date
Sep-27-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Antipsychotic Agents - adverse effects
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Tranquilizing Agents - adverse effects
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Antipsychotics and mood stabilisers are prescribed widely to patients with psychiatric disorders worldwide. Despite clear evidence for their efficacy in relapse prevention and symptom relief, their effect on some adverse outcomes, including the perpetration of violent crime, is unclear. We aimed to establish the effect of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers on the rate of violent crime committed by patients with psychiatric disorders in Sweden.
We used linked Swedish national registers to study 82,647 patients who were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, their psychiatric diagnoses, and subsequent criminal convictions in 2006-09. We did within-individual analyses to compare the rate of violent criminality during the time that patients were prescribed these medications versus the rate for the same patients while they were not receiving the drugs to adjust for all confounders that remained constant within each participant during follow-up. The primary outcome was the occurrence of violent crime, according to Sweden's national crime register.
In 2006-09, 40,937 men in Sweden were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, of whom 2657 (6?5%) were convicted of a violent crime during the study period. In the same period, 41,710 women were prescribed these drugs, of whom 604 (1?4 %) had convictions for violent crime. Compared with periods when participants were not on medication, violent crime fell by 45% in patients receiving antipsychotics (hazard ratio [HR] 0?55, 95% CI 0?47-0?64) and by 24% in patients prescribed mood stabilisers (0?76, 0?62-0?93). However, we identified potentially important differences by diagnosis-mood stabilisers were associated with a reduced rate of violent crime only in patients with bipolar disorder. The rate of violence reduction for antipsychotics remained between 22% and 29% in sensitivity analyses that used different outcomes (any crime, drug-related crime, less severe crime, and violent arrest), and was stronger in patients who were prescribed higher drug doses than in those prescribed low doses. Notable reductions in violent crime were also recorded for depot medication (HR adjusted for concomitant oral medications 0?60, 95% CI 0?39-0?92).
In addition to relapse prevention and psychiatric symptom relief, the benefits of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers might also include reductions in the rates of violent crime. The potential effects of these drugs on violence and crime should be taken into account when treatment options for patients with psychiatric disorders are being considered.
The Wellcome Trust, the Swedish Prison and Probation Service, the Swedish Research Council, and the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24816046 View in PubMed
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