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Air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma in Windsor, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126951
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):4-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Eric Lavigne
Paul J Villeneuve
Sabit Cakmak
Author Affiliation
Environmental Issues Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON. eric.lavigne@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):4-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Over Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Particle Size
Risk
Seasons
Abstract
The city of Windsor is recognized to have poor air quality in comparison with other Canadian cities. However, relatively few studies have evaluated associations between day-to-day fluctuations in air pollution levels and respiratory health in Windsor. In this study, we examined associations between short-term changes in ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma in Windsor.
A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 3,728 ED visits for asthma that occurred in Windsor area hospitals between 2002 and 2009. Daily air pollution levels for the region were estimated using Environment Canada's network of fixed-site monitors. ED visits were identified through the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for the confounding influence of daily number of influenza ED visits and weather variables using natural spline functions.
Statistically significant associations were observed between ambient air pollution levels and ED visits for asthma in Windsor. Effects were particularly pronounced among children 2 to 14 years of age between April and September. Namely, increases in the interquartile range with 1-day lagged exposure to SO2, NO2 and CO levels were associated with increased risks of an asthma visit of 19%, 25% and 36%, respectively.
Exposure in Windsor to ambient air pollution increases the risk of ED visits for asthma, particularly among children.
PubMed ID
22338320 View in PubMed
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Ambient ozone concentrations and the risk of perforated and nonperforated appendicitis: a multicity case-crossover study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108785
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Aug;121(8):939-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Gilaad G Kaplan
Divine Tanyingoh
Elijah Dixon
Markey Johnson
Amanda J Wheeler
Robert P Myers
Stefania Bertazzon
Vineet Saini
Karen Madsen
Subrata Ghosh
Paul J Villeneuve
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Environmental Health Research Group, Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ggkaplan@ucalgary.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Aug;121(8):939-43
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Appendicitis - chemically induced - classification - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cities
Cross-Over Studies
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Ozone - analysis - toxicity
Retrospective Studies
Seasons
Young Adult
Abstract
Environmental determinants of appendicitis are poorly understood. Past work suggests that air pollution may increase the risk of appendicitis.
We investigated whether ambient ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations were associated with appendicitis and whether these associations varied between perforated and nonperforated appendicitis.
We based this time-stratified case-crossover study on 35,811 patients hospitalized with appendicitis from 2004 to 2008 in 12 Canadian cities. Data from a national network of fixed-site monitors were used to calculate daily maximum O3 concentrations for each city. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate city-specific odds ratios (ORs) relative to an interquartile range (IQR) increase in O3 adjusted for temperature and relative humidity. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to derive a pooled risk estimate. Stratified analyses were used to estimate associations separately for perforated and nonperforated appendicitis.
Overall, a 16-ppb increase in the 7-day cumulative average daily maximum O3 concentration was associated with all appendicitis cases across the 12 cities (pooled OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.13). The association was stronger among patients presenting with perforated appendicitis for the 7-day average (pooled OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.36) when compared with the corresponding estimate for nonperforated appendicitis [7-day average (pooled OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.09)]. Heterogeneity was not statistically significant across cities for either perforated or nonperforated appendicitis (p > 0.20).
Higher levels of ambient O3 exposure may increase the risk of perforated appendicitis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23842601 View in PubMed
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Associations between cigarette smoking, obesity, sociodemographic characteristics and remote-sensing-derived estimates of ambient PM2.5: results from a Canadian population-based survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134212
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2011 Dec;68(12):920-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Paul J Villeneuve
Mark S Goldberg
Richard T Burnett
Aaron van Donkelaar
Hong Chen
Randall V Martin
Author Affiliation
Population Studies Division, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Room 165, PL0801A, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada. paul_villeneuve@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2011 Dec;68(12):920-7
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Canada - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Coronary Disease - mortality
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Life Style
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Obesity - epidemiology
Particle Size
Remote Sensing Technology
Smoking - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Long-term exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.)) has been shown to increase mortality. Variables measured on the same spatial scales of air pollution may confound associations, and so the authors' objectives were to evaluate the associations between PM2.5 and individual-level measures of smoking, obesity and sociodemographic status. The authors present an approach to evaluate the impact that uncontrolled confounding from smoking may have on associations between PM2.5 and mortality.
Individual-level behavioural and sociodemographic data were obtained from a 2003 national survey of 122,548 Canadians. Estimates of ground-level PM2.5 at a resolution of 10×10 km between 2001 and 2006 were derived from satellite remote sensing. Exposures were assigned to the residence of the participants at the time of the survey. Differences in the prevalence of smoking across concentrations of PM2.5 and RRs drawn from the literature were used to model the bias on rate ratios.
Participants in areas with higher concentrations of PM2.5 had a higher income and educational attainment, smoked less and were more likely immigrants. Smoking had a negative confounding effect on the associations between PM2.5) and mortality. To compensate for this bias, for a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, mortality from lung cancer and heart disease in the referent exposure group needed to be increased by 6.9% and 3.2%, respectively.
Associations were found between sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics and PM2.5 at a resolution of 10×10 km. The authors present a model to adjust for uncontrolled confounding of smoking that can be readily adapted to exposures measured at different spatial resolutions.
PubMed ID
21610265 View in PubMed
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Associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for stroke in Edmonton, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166990
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(9):689-700
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Paul J Villeneuve
Li Chen
Dave Stieb
Brian H Rowe
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Division, Environmental Contaminants Bureau, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave. W. 3rd Floor, 3-022 PL4903C, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0K9. Paul_Villeneuve@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(9):689-700
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada
Carbon Monoxide - toxicity
Cerebral Hemorrhage - chemically induced
Emergency Medical Services - statistics & numerical data
Hospital Departments
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide - toxicity
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Seasons
Stroke - chemically induced - epidemiology - etiology
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Inconsistent results have been obtained from studies that have examined the relationship between air pollution and hospital visits for stroke. We undertook a time-stratified case-crossover study to evaluate associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for stroke among the elderly according to stroke type, season, and sex. Analyses are based on a total of 12,422 stroke visits among those 65 years of age and older in Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for SO(2), NO(2), PM(2.5), PM(10), CO and O(3) were estimated using data from fixed-site monitoring stations. Particulate matter data were only available from 1998 onwards. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals in relation to an increase in the interquartile range (IQR) of each pollutant. ORs were adjusted for the effects of temperature and relative humidity. We found no association between outdoor measures of air pollution and all stroke visits. In contrast, elevated risks were observed between levels of air pollution and acute ischemic stroke between April and September. During this season, the ORs associated with an increase in the IQR of the 3-day average for CO and NO(2) were 1.32 (95% CI = 1.09-1.60) and 1.26 (95% CI = 1.09-1.46), respectively. CO exposures in the same season, lagged 1 day, were associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke with ORs was 1.20 (95% CI = 1.00-1.43). Our results suggest it is possible that vehicular traffic, which produces increased levels of NO(2) and CO, contributes to an increased incidence of emergency department visits for stroke.
PubMed ID
17048082 View in PubMed
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Brain cancer and occupational exposure to magnetic fields among men: results from a Canadian population-based case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190851
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2002 Feb;31(1):210-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2002
Author
Paul J Villeneuve
David A Agnew
Kenneth C Johnson
Yang Mao
Author Affiliation
Environmental Risk Assessment and Case Surveillance Division, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0L2. pvillene@uottawa.ca
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2002 Feb;31(1):210-7
Date
Feb-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Astrocytoma - epidemiology
Brain Neoplasms - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Electromagnetic fields - adverse effects
Glioblastoma - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Abstract
The relationship between occupational exposure to magnetic fields and brain cancer in men was investigated using population-based case-control data collected in eight Canadian provinces. Emphasis was placed on examining the variations in risk across different histological types.
A list of occupations was compiled for 543 cases and 543 controls that were individually matched by age. Occupations were categorized according to their average magnetic field exposure through blinded expert review ( or = 0.6 microT). In total, 133 cases (14%) and 123 controls (12%) were estimated to have at least one occupation whereby magnetic field exposures exceeded 0.3 microT. Odds ratios (OR) were generated using conditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for suspected occupational risk factors for brain cancer.
A non-significantly increased risk of brain cancer was observed among men who had ever held a job with an average magnetic field exposure >0.6 microT relative to those with exposures
PubMed ID
11914323 View in PubMed
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Canadian breast implant cohort: extended follow-up of cancer incidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125120
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Oct 1;131(7):E1148-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2012
Author
Sai Yi Pan
Eric Lavigne
Eric J Holowaty
Paul J Villeneuve
Lin Xie
Howard Morrison
Jacques Brisson
Author Affiliation
Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Oct 1;131(7):E1148-57
Date
Oct-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Breast Implants - adverse effects
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Young Adult
Abstract
Cosmetic breast implants are not associated with increased breast cancer incidence, but variations of risk according to implant characteristics are still poorly understood. As well, the assessment of cancer risk for sites other than breast needs to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to fill these research gaps. This study presents an extended analysis of 10 more years of follow-up of a large Canadian cohort of women who received either cosmetic breast implants (n = 24,558) or other cosmetic surgery (15,893). Over 70% of the implant cohort was followed for over 20 years. Cancer incidence among implant women was compared to those of controls using multivariate Poisson models and the general female population using the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Women with breast implants had reduced rates of breast and endometrial cancers compared to other surgery women. Subglandular implants were associated to a reduced rate of breast cancer compared to submuscular implants [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63-0.96] and this reduction persisted over time. We observed a sevenfold increased rate (IRR = 7.36, 95% CI = 1.86-29.12) of breast cancer in the first 5 years after the date of surgery for polyurethane-coated subglandular implant women but this IRR decreased progressively over time (p value for trend = 0.02). We also observed no increased risk of rarer forms of cancer among augmented women. A reduction in breast cancer incidence was observed for women with subglandular implants relative to women with submuscular implants. Possible increase of breast cancer incidence shortly after breast augmentation with polyurethane implants needs to be verified.
PubMed ID
22514048 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence in a cohort of Ontario and Quebec women having bilateral breast augmentation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171380
Source
Int J Cancer. 2006 Jun 1;118(11):2854-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-2006
Author
Jacques Brisson
Eric J Holowaty
Paul J Villeneuve
Lin Xie
Anne-Marie Ugnat
Louis Latulippe
Yang Mao
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Laval, QC, Canada.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2006 Jun 1;118(11):2854-62
Date
Jun-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Breast Implants - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Female
Functional Laterality
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Silicones - adverse effects
Abstract
The possibility that women, who receive breast implants for cosmetic purposes, have increased long-term risks of developing cancer continues to be debated. The objective of our study was to prospectively examine cancer incidence among women who received breast implants. A cohort was assembled of 24,558 women, 18 years of age and older, who underwent bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation, and 15,893 women who underwent other cosmetic procedures in Ontario or Quebec between 1974 and 1989. These plastic surgery patients were selected from the same clinics as the implant population. Incident cancers were identified by linking to Canadian registry data up to December 31, 1997. In total, 676 cancers were identified among women who received breast implants compared to 899 expected based on general population rates (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.81). Overall cancer incidence rates among women who received breast implants were similar to that of the other plastic surgery patients (relative risk (RR) = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.81-1.02). However, women who received breast implants had lower breast cancer rates than the plastic surgery patients (RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.53-0.79). No increased risks were observed among the implant population for any of the other cancer sites examined. Comparisons involving only women who received breast implants found no association between long-term breast cancer incidence and implant site (submuscular vs. subglandular), fill (saline vs. silicone) or envelope (polyurethane-coated or not). In conclusion, women undergoing cosmetic breast augmentation do not appear to be at an increased long-term risk of developing cancer.
PubMed ID
16381020 View in PubMed
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A case-control study of long-term exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and lung cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105923
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 15;179(4):443-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-2014
Author
Paul J Villeneuve
Michael Jerrett
Darren Brenner
Jason Su
Hong Chen
John R McLaughlin
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 15;179(4):443-51
Date
Feb-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Benzene - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Ontario - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Volatile Organic Compounds - adverse effects
Abstract
Few studies have investigated associations between nonoccupational exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and lung cancer. We conducted a case-control study of 445 incident lung cancers and 948 controls (523 hospital, 425 general population) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, between 1997 and 2002. Participants provided information on several risk factors, including tobacco use, secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke, obesity, and family history of cancer. Exposure to benzene, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen dioxide was estimated using land-use regression models. Exposures were linked to residential addresses to estimate exposure at the time of interview, 10 years before interview, and across past residences (time-weighted average). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Analyses involving the population-based controls found that an interquartile-range increase in the time-weighted average benzene concentration (0.15 µg/m(3)) across previous residences was associated with lung cancer (odds ratio = 1.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.68). Similarly, an interquartile-range increase in the time-weighted average nitrogen dioxide concentration (4.8 ppb) yielded an odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.12). Our study suggests that long-term exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide at relatively low concentrations is associated with lung cancer. Further work is needed to evaluate joint relationships between these pollutants, smoking, and lung cancer.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 15;179(4):455-624287469
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 15;179(4):452-424287471
PubMed ID
24287467 View in PubMed
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A case-control study of medium-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide pollution and hospitalization for stroke.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114640
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:368
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Julie Y M Johnson
Brian H Rowe
Ryan W Allen
Paul A Peters
Paul J Villeneuve
Author Affiliation
Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:368
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - classification
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Risk factors
Social Class
Stroke - epidemiology
Vehicle Emissions
Abstract
There are several plausible mechanisms whereby either short or long term exposure to pollution can increase the risk of stroke. Over the last decade, several studies have reported associations between short-term (day-to-day) increases in ambient air pollution and stroke. The findings from a smaller number of studies that have looked at long-term exposure to air pollution and stroke have been mixed. Most of these epidemiological studies have assigned exposure to air pollution based on place of residence, but these assignments are typically based on relatively coarse spatial resolutions. To date, few studies have evaluated medium-term exposures (i.e, exposures over the past season or year). To address this research gap, we evaluated associations between highly spatially resolved estimates of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic pollution, and emergency department visits for stroke in Edmonton, Canada.
This was a case-control study with cases defined as those who presented to an Edmonton area hospital emergency department between 2007 and 2009 with an acute ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or transient ischemic attack. Controls were patients who presented to the same emergency departments for lacerations, sprains, or strains. A land-use regression model provided estimates of NO2 that were assigned to the place of residence. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios for stroke in relation to an increase in the interquartile range of NO2 (5 ppb), adjusted for age, sex, meteorological variables, and neighborhood effects.
The study included 4,696 stroke (cases) and 37,723 injury patients (controls). For all strokes combined, there was no association with NO2. Namely, the odds ratio associated with an interquartile increase in NO2 was 1.01 (95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.94-1.08). No associations were evident for any of the stroke subtypes examined.
When combined with our earlier work in Edmonton, our findings suggest that day-to-day fluctuations in air pollution increase the risk of ischemic stroke during the summer season, while medium term exposures are unrelated to stroke risk. The findings for medium term exposure should be interpreted cautiously due to limited individual-level risk factor data.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23597019 View in PubMed
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A cohort study of intra-urban variations in volatile organic compounds and mortality, Toronto, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116710
Source
Environ Pollut. 2013 Dec;183:30-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Paul J Villeneuve
Michael Jerrett
Jason Su
Richard T Burnett
Hong Chen
Jeffrey Brook
Amanda J Wheeler
Sabit Cakmak
Mark S Goldberg
Author Affiliation
Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: Paul_Villeneuve@hc-sc.gc.ca.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2013 Dec;183:30-9
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - mortality
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis - toxicity
Ontario - epidemiology
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
This study investigated associations between long-term exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and mortality. 58,760 Toronto residents (=35 years of age) were selected from tax filings and followed from 1982 to 2004. Death information was extracted using record linkage to national mortality data. Land-use regression surfaces for benzene, n-hexane, and total hydrocarbons were generated from sampling campaigns in 2002 and 2004 and assigned to residential addresses in 1982. Cox regression was used to estimate relationships between each VOC and non-accidental, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. Positive associations were observed for each VOC. In multi-pollutant models the benzene and total hydrocarbon signals were strongest for cancer. The hazard ratio for cancer that corresponded to an increase in the interquartile range of benzene (0.13 µg/m(3)) was 1.06 (95% CI = 1.02-1.11). Our findings suggest ambient concentrations of VOCs were associated with cancer mortality, and that these exposures did not confound our previously reported associations between NO2 and cardiovascular mortality.
PubMed ID
23369806 View in PubMed
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