Dwellings with/without a lead service line [LSL] were sampled for lead in tap water in Montreal, during different seasons. Short-term simulations using these results and the batchrun mode of the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model showed that children's exposure to lead at the tap in the presence of an LSL varies seasonally, and according to the type of dwelling. From July to March, for single-family homes, the estimated geometric mean [GM] blood lead level [BLL] decreased from 2.3-3.6 µg/dL to 1.5-2.5 µg/dL, depending on the children's age. The wide seasonal variations in lead exposure result in a minimal fraction (0-6%) of children with a predicted BLL >5 µg/dL in winter, as opposed to a significant proportion (5-25%) in summer. These estimations are in close agreement with the BLLs measured in Montreal children in fall and winter, and simulations using summer water lead levels illustrate the importance of measuring BLLs during the summer. Finally, simulations for wartime residences with long LSLs confirm the need to prioritize the control of this lead exposure from tap water.
The relationship between chlorination by-products (CBPs) in drinking water and human health outcomes has been investigated in many epidemiological studies. In these studies, population exposure assessment to CBPs in drinking water is generally based on available CBP data (e.g., from regulatory monitoring, sampling campaigns specific to study area). Since trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the most documented CBP classes in drinking water, they are generally used as indicators of CBP exposure.
In this paper, different approaches to spatially assign available THM and HAA concentrations in drinking water for population exposure assessment purposes are investigated. Six approaches integrating different considerations for spatial variability of CBP occurrence within different distribution systems are compared. For this purpose, a robust CBP database (i.e., high number of sampling locations selected according to system characteristics) corresponding to nine distribution systems was generated.
The results demonstrate the high impact of the structure of the distribution system (e.g., presence of intermediary water infrastructures such as re-chlorination stations or reservoirs) and the spatial variability of CBPs in the assigned levels for exposure assessment. Recommendations for improving the exposure assessment to CBPs in epidemiological studies using available CBP data from water utilities are also presented.
Cites: Water Res. 2009 May;43(8):2057-9219304309
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72(7):482-9319267309
Increasing livestock density and animal manure spreading, along with climate factors such as heavy rainfall, may increase the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). In this study we evaluated the association between farming activities, precipitation and AGI.
A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006) of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (> or = 90th percentile), moderate (50th to
Chloroform (CHCl3) the trihalomethane most prevalent in drinking water, is a proven animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. Consequently, standards have been issued by health authorities to limit its concentration in drinking water. These limits are based solely on ingestion, without taking into account inhalation and skin contact. Exposure to CHCl3 was assessed for 18 men (age: mean 38 years; range 23-51) following a 10-min shower in their respective residences located in the Quebec City region (Canada). CHCl3 concentration was measured in alveolar air samples collected before, immediately after, and 15 min and 30 min following the shower. Indoor air and water concentrations were determined concomitantly. Mean CHCl3 concentrations in the air of the shower stall and in water were respectively 147 microg/m3 (SD = 56.2 microg/m3) and 20.1 microg/L (SD = 9.0 microg/L). Water concentrations were comparable to those documented in a large proportion of distribution networks in Canada. The mean increase in alveolar air CHCl3 concentration (deltaCHCIALV) at the end of the shower was 33 microg/m3 (SD = 14.7 microg/m3). A multiple-regression analysis revealed that deltaCHCl3ALV values were only associated with chloroform concentration in air of the shower stall. DeltaCHCl3ALV were described using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. This model was then used to estimate concentrations of CHCl3 metabolites bound to liver and kidney macromolecules following a shower, and also according to exposure scenarios that integrate drinking-water ingestion and air inhalation. The concentration predicted in the liver following a worst-case exposure scenario was 0.41 microg CHCl3 equivalents/kg of tissue, some 6,000 times lower than the lowest concentration that did not increase the incidence of hepatic tumors in laboratory animals. Data indicate that for this range of exposure the safety margin appears therefore considerable with respect to the potential carcinogenic effect of household exposure to CHCl3.
The authors conducted a population-based case-control study of 1,068 incident leukemia cases and 5,039 controls aged 20-74 years during 1994-1997 to examine the association between exposure to drinking water chlorination disinfection by-products and adult leukemia risk in Canada. Residence and drinking water source histories and data from municipal water supplies were used to estimate individual chlorination disinfection by-product exposure according to water source, chlorination status, and chlorination disinfection by-product levels during the 40-year period before the interview. The analysis included 686 cases and 3,420 controls for whom water quality information was available for at least 30 of these years. Increased risk of chronic myeloid leukemia was associated with increasing years of exposure to different chlorination disinfection by-product indexes, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.72 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 3.08) for the highest exposure duration to total trihalomethanes of more than 40 microg/liter. In contrast, the risk of the other studied leukemia subtypes was found to decrease with increasing years of exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products. A protective effect was noted for chronic lymphoid leukemia (odds ratio = 0.60, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.41, 0.87) associated with the highest exposure duration to total trihalomethanes of more than 40 microg/liter. More studies with long-term exposure measures and large enough to evaluate leukemia subtypes are needed to further understanding of the issue.
Drinking water is a potential source of toxic contaminant and it is well known that water intake on a body weight basis decreases rapidly with increasing age. Nevertheless, few studies have been conducted on water intake of very young infants who might be particularly sensitive to some toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to describe the mean and distribution of total water intake of 2-month old infants living in agricultural areas. Mothers (n=642) of 8 to 9 week old infants were interviewed by phone to evaluate their feeding practice, including juice and cereal intake. There were 393 infants (61%) who drank some quantity of water and 278 (43%) consumed formula reconstituted with water. For formula-fed infants, the 10, 50 and 90th percentiles of daily water intake were 79, 112, and 179 ml/kg respectively. These values are much higher than the intake recommended by US EPA for infants under one year (US EPA, 1997). This study demonstrates the importance of considering water distribution intake in very young infants who may be particularly susceptible to water contaminants.
The role of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the causation of lung and breast cancer has been repeatedly evaluated over recent years. In contrast, its impact on the risk of adult leukemia has received little attention.
We used the lifetime residential and occupational ETS exposure histories from a population-based sample of 1068 incident and histologically confirmed adult leukemia cases and 5039 population controls age 20 to 74 years to evaluate the relationship between ETS exposure and adult leukemia risk among nonsmokers in Canada. The duration of exposure and smoker-years index were used as indices of ETS exposure. We restricted our analysis to the 266 case and 1326 control subjects who reported being lifetime nonsmokers and provided residential ETS exposure history for at least 75% of their lifetime.
No association was found for most leukemia subtypes, and in particular for acute myeloid leukemia. In contrast, the risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia was clearly associated with ETS exposure, with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5) for more than 83 smoker-years of residential exposure and 2.4 (1.3-4.3) for more than 72 smoker-years of occupational exposure. There was a dose-response relationship for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with both indices of exposure. Risk was not higher with recent exposure, using time-window-exposure analyses.
Regular long-term ETS exposure may be a risk factor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
This study was designed to provide an experimental validation for a statistical model predicting past or future exposures to magnetic fields (MF) from power lines. The model estimates exposure, combining the distribution of ambient MF in the absence of power lines with the distribution of past or future MF produced by power lines. In the study, validation is carried out by comparing exposures predicted by the model with the actual measurements obtained from a large-scale epidemiological study. The comparison was made for a group of 220 women living near a 735 kV power line. Knowing that the individual arithmetic means of MF exposures follow a log-normal distribution, the Pearson correlation between the log-transformed measured means and the calculated ones was determined and found to be 0.77. Predicted values of MF exposures were slightly lower than measured values. The calculated geometric mean of the group was 0.33 microT, compared to 0.38 microT for the measured geometric mean. The present study shows good agreement between the measured MF exposure of an individual inside a house near a 735 kV line and the MF exposure calculated using a statistical model.
Lead is a known toxicant that occurs naturally in the environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used primarily in polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. It has been 30 years since lead exposure was measured at a national level, and it is the first time for a national assessment of BPA exposure.
Data are from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measure Survey. Lead in whole blood (PbB) and urinary BPA were measured in 5319 and 5476 respondents aged 6 to 79, respectively. Geometric means (GMs) are presented by age group and sex for PbB (pg/dL), volume-based BPA (microg/L), and creatinine-standardized BPA (microg/g creatinine). Adjusted least squares geometric means (LSGMs) for PbB and BPA are presented by selected covariates.
PbB was detected in 100% of the population, with a GM concentration of 1.34 microg/dL. Adults aged 60 to 79 and males had significantly higher GM PbB concentrations. Lower household income, being born outside Canada, living in a dwelling at least 50 years old, current or former smoking, and drinking alcohol at least once a week were associated with higher PbB concentrations. Urinary BPA was detected in 91% of the population, with a GM concentration of 1.16 microg/L (1.40 microg/g creatinine). Children aged 6 to 11 had significantly higher GM creatinine-standardized BPA concentrations than did other age groups.
Although PbB concentrations have declined dramatically since the 1970s, socio-demographic characteristics, the age of dwellings, and certain lifestyle behaviours are associated with higher levels. Given the short half-life of orally ingested BPA and the high frequency of detection, the CHMS data suggest continual widespread exposure in the Canadian population.
To evaluate the impact of active smoking, obesity, and dietary intakes on the risk of adult leukemia.
We analysed data obtained from a population-based case-control study conducted in eight Canadian provinces. Risk estimates were generated by applying multivariate logistic regression methods to 1068 incident histologically confirmed leukemia cases and 5039 controls aged 20-74.
We found a statistically significant increased risk for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with active smoking, with a clear dose-response relationship and an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1-2.0) for heavy smokers reporting more than 20 pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also observed positive associations with the highest body mass index (BMI) for AML, chronic myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphoid leukemia with a significant dose-response relationship. No association with leukemia was observed for the intake of fruits and vegetables, and the effect of active smoking on adult leukemia risk was not modified by fruits and/or vegetables consumption or obesity. However, the positive risk for AML associated with active smoking disappeared among subjects with high BMI (> or =30 kg/m2).
Our study contributes to the accumulating evidence linking AML and active smoking, and provides some evidence that obesity increases the risk of most of the adult leukemia subtypes.
Comment In: Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Apr;17(3):351-216489543